Open Access Books

Open Access Medical Books

Wednesday, August 24, 2016



Edited by Petar Ivanov .

166 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1199-3 .

Thrombophilia has appeared as a diverse group coagulation disorder associated with thrombosis development tendency. Both acquired and inherited thrombophilia shows relationship with a risk of pregnancy failure. Despite the extended researches, the influence of thrombophilia on gestation complications and potential management options stays indistinct and undergoes frequent revaluations.
The main purpose of “Pregnancy Thrombophilia - The Unsuspected Risk” is to provide an update of the current statements of the place and treatment options of thrombophilic conditions during pregnancy. The thrombotic state and its control during pregnancy appears in a new direction in high risk pregnancy follow up. Providing continuous updated evidence concerning these pregnancy states is a sizable goal of mother-fetus health involved practitioners.
The authors of “Pregnancy Thrombophilia - The Unsuspected Risk” attempt to propose up-to-date, concise statements about pregnancy thrombophilia and current indications for treatment options encompassing both clinical and basic knowledge of the problem.
The first and second book’s chapters provide recent knowledge about molecular basis of thrombophilia state and its clinical and pathological appearance in mother, fetus, and placenta.
The further two chapters discuss the main target groups of women with pregnancy complications needing thrombophilia testing and an incoming pharmacogenetic approach of individualized antithrombotic therapy.
Chapters five and six summarize the current view for the place of acquired thrombophilia – antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus disease in adverse pregnancy outcome and supplemental therapy in concern with anticoagulant treatment.
Because of the specific processes concerning embryo implantation and placenta development after IVF, a separate chapter has been added to give contemporary position for the influence and treatment requirements in women with thrombophilia undergoing assisted reproduction.
Thanks to the different affiliation fields of the book’s authors and editors, an extensive view of pregnancy thrombophilia conditions have been given using current published clinical trials and still-in-laboratory investigations.
“Pregnancy Thrombophilia - The Unsuspected Risk” has been faced to all specialists, being involved in mother-fetal health care and it gives a chance for them to form their own opinion for studying and treating maternal thrombophilic state. The content is open for feedback, concerning further update, improvement of the scientific substance and applied clinical guidelines directions.

Petar Ivanov, MD, PhD, OB/GYNs
Clinical Institute for Reproductive Medicine, IVF Unit
Medical University Pleven, Biochemistry Department
Pleven, Bulgaria


 1 Genetics and Molecular Pathophysiology of Thrombotic States 1 Ludek Slavik

 2 Placenta Changes During Pregnancy with Thrombophilia — Influences of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Therapy 25 P. Ivanov and Tsv. Tsvyatkovska

 3 Main Types of Clinical Appearance of Thrombophilic States During Pregnancy – Target Groups for Thrombophilia Testing 39 Ricardo Barini, Joyce Annichino-Bizzache, Egle Couto, Marcelo Luis Nomura and Isabela Nelly Machado

 4 Pharmacogenetics and the Treatment of Thrombophilia 67 Ivana Novaković, Nela Maksimović and Dragana Cvetković

 5 Antiphospholipid Antibodies Syndrome and Reproductive Failures: New Therapeutic Trends Beyond Aspirin and Heparin 83 Chiara Tersigni, Silvia D’Ippolito and Nicoletta Di Simone

 6 Thrombophilia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Review of Multiple Mechanisms and Resultant Clinical Outcomes 105 Patricia J. Dhar and Robert J. Sokol

 7 Thrombophilia in Assisted Reproductive Technology — Place and Needs of Thromboprophylaxis 129 P. Ivanov, Sl. Tomov, Tsv. Tsvyatkovska, E. Konova and R. Komsa- Penkova .

younes younes Oncology and Hematology



Edited by Thomas Nelius .

184 pages . 
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1180-1 .

Urinary tract infections (UTI) continue to be under the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Diagnostic and treatment have substantial financial burden on society. In the USA, UTIs are responsible for more than 7 million physician visits annually and about 15% of all community-prescribed antibiotics in the USA are dispensed for UTIs. About 50% of women will experience at least one UTI episode during lifetime, about 1 million emergency department visits due to UTI in the USA alone, resulting in more than 100 000 hospital admissions annually, most often for pyelonephritis. Moreover, UTIs are also the leading cause of hospital acquired infections, accounting for approximately 40% of all such cases. The majority of these cases are catheter-associated. Therefore, nosocomial UTIs comprise perhaps the largest institutional reservoir for nosocomial antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Beside the economic impact, UTIs affect also significantly the quality of life of the affected population.
The aim of this book is to highlight problematic aspects and recent advances in the field of UTIs. The book is divided in three parts.
The first part covers issues regarding catheter-associated UTIs including prevention, problems in developing countries and the role of bacterial biofilms.
In the second part deals with potential new diagnostic developments for pediatric related UTIs. This includes new concepts regarding dysfunctional voiding and new anatomical aspects of the vesico-ureteral junction.
Genetic factors underlying susceptibility upper UTIs and potential immune-based treatment strategies are discussed in the third part of the book.

Thomas Nelius
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
Department of Urology,
Lubbock, Texas
United States of America


I - Management of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections .

 1 Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in the Outpatient and Inpatient Settings 3 Leslie Kammire

 2 Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections 23 Ioannis Efthimiou and Kostadinos Skrepetis

 3 Problem of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Sub–Saharan Africa 45 Mohamed Labib and Nenad Spasojevic

 4 Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) and Strategies for Their Control 55 Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou and Kumar Venkitanarayanan

II - New Aspects in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections .

 5 Developments Regarding Dysfunctional Voiding and Urinary Tract Infections in Children 89 Yusuf Kibar and Faysal Gok

 6 Functional Anatomy of the Vesicoureteric Junction: Implication on the Management of VUR/ UTI 109 Vivian Yee-Fong Leung and Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu

III - Genetical and Immunological Implications for Urinary Tract Infections .

 7 Genetic Factors Underlying Susceptibility to Acute Pyelonephritis and Post-infectious Renal Damage 137 Maja Zivkovic, Ljiljana Stojkovic, Brankica Spasojevic-Dimitrijeva, Mirjana Kostic and Aleksandra Stankovic

 8 Immune-Based Treatment Strategies for Patients with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections – Where Are We? 161 Thomas Nelius, Christopher Winter, Julia Willingham and Stephanie Filleur .

younes younes Urology and Nephrology

Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Future Outlook

Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Future Outlook

Edited by Ahmed O. Kaseb .

ISBN 978-953-51-1202-0 .
322 pages .
Open Access .

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of underlying chronic liver disease, most commonly cirrhosis. Therefore, HCC management draws on the expertise of a range of medical specialists. Many components of current novel therapeutic modalities for HCC are discussed in the current version of the book within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach with special emphasis on emerging treatment approaches and research strategies. This book is the essential clinical guide for oncologists, hepatologists, surgeons, and all physicians and researchers involved in the care of patients with HCC. I would like to thank the authors for their significant efforts in bringing this edition to life. This book is a tribute to their continued dedication to improving HCC outcome.

Dr. Ahmed Kaseb
University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center .


 1 Role of Alleles and Genotypes of Polymorphisms of IL-18 (-607 C/A; and -137 C/G), IFN-γ (+874 A/T) and TNF-α (-238 A/G and -308 A/G) and HLA-G Genes in the Susceptibility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. by Andreza Correa Teixeira, Ana de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli and Eduardo Antonio Donadi

 2 Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Emad H. Asham, Howard Mansour and Mark Ghobrial

 3 Radioembolization for the Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Amir Sabet and Hans Jürgen Biersack

 4 Image-Guided Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatocelluar Carcinoma — Future Outlook . by Bruno C. Odisio, Ravi Murthy and Michael J. Wallace

 5 Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Xin-yu Huang, Qi Zheng and Zhou Yuan

 6 Targets and Approaches to Control Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Future . by Mukherjee Biswajit, Hossain Chowdhury Mobaswar , Bhattacharya Sanchari and Shampa Ghosh

 7 Early Chronic Inflammation and Subsequent Somatic Mutations Shift Phospho-Smad3 Signaling from Tumor- Suppression to Fibro-Carcinogenesis in Human Chronic Liver Diseases . by Miki Murata, Katsunori Yoshida and Koichi Matsuzaki

 8 Surgical Treatment Strategies and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Alessandro Uzzau, Maria Laura Pertoldeo, Vittorio Cherchi, Serena Bertozzi, Claudio Avellini and Giorgio Soardo

 9 Conditions that Predispose to the Development of HCC: The Role of Tumor Associated Fibroblasts and of microRNA . by C. Avellini, D. Cesselli, A.P. Beltrami, M. Orsaria, S. Marzinotto, F. Morassi and S. Uzzau

 10 Signs and Symptoms of HCC . by Valerio Barghini, Debora Donnini, Alessandro Uzzau and Giorgio Soardo

 11 Sorafenib in the Continuum of Care for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Challenges in Defining Optimal Practice . by Ahmed O. Kaseb and Laura M. Kulik

 12 Sorafenib-Inhibited Signaling: Emerging Evidence of RAFIndependent Pathways as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Yasunobu Matsuda, Toshifumi Wakai, Masayuki Kubota, Mami Osawa and Shun Fujimaki

 13 Insulin-Like Growth Factor-II: Molecular-Targeted Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma . by Min Yao, Li Wang, Meijuan Yan, Xiaodi Yan and Dengfu Yao

 14 Simultaneous Changes in Expression of Bile Canalicular CD10 and Sinusoidal CD105 (Endoglin) in Chronic Hepatitis and Liver Cirrhosis . by Toshitsugu Nakamura

 15 Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Steroid Hormones and Metalloproteases . by Noemí Eiró, Belen Fernandez-Garcia, Antonio Altadill, Luis O. González and Francisco J. Vizoso .



Edited by Francesco Signorelli and Domenico Chirchiglia .

Open Access .
522 pages .
ISBN 978-953-51-1160-3 .

Brain mapping is nowadays a well established field of functional neuroscience that has a high clinical impact, sustained by incessant advancements of basic and clinical research.
The world-class group of neuroscientists gathered together to elaborate this book has done a skillful job: apart from delineating their area of expertise they managed to give the reader an accurate hint about what are the current implications of brain mapping both in research and clinic. Ideal for researchers and clinicians involved in functional neurosciences, this book is a valuable reading for anyone, student, resident or seasoned specialist, seeking to keep up to date with the latest developments in functional brain mapping.
By dividing the book in three chapters we intended to give the reader an inkling of the main topics studied, namely sensorimotor integration, speech, vision, mood and cognition, as well as the central research and clinical applications of brain mapping. These are the stepping stones from which further developments will arise and contribute to improve our understanding of brain function and our capacity to enhance, preserve and restore it in case of impairment or loss.

Prof. Francesco Signorelli
Associate Professor of Neurosurgery
University “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy
Consultant Neurosurgeon
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical,
Department of Neurosurgery, Lyon, France

Prof. Domenico Chirchiglia
Aggregate Professor of Neurosurgery
University “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy


Section 1 Functional Neuroimaging of Attention, Sensorimotor Integration and Speech .

 1 Sensorimotor Integration and Attention: An Electrophysiological Analysis 3 Bruna Velasques, Mauricio Cagy, Roberto Piedade and Pedro Ribeiro

 2 A High Performance MEG Based BCI Using Single Trial Detection of Human Movement Intention 17 Peter T. Lin, Kartikeya Sharma, Tom Holroyd, Harsha Battapady, Ding-Yu Fei and Ou Bai

 3 Brain Mapping of Developmental Coordination Disorder 37 Mitsuru Kashiwagi and Hiroshi Tamai

 4 Shared Neural Correlates for Speech and Gesture 61 Meghan L. Healey and Allen R. Braun

 5 Brain Mapping of Language Processing Using Functional MRI Connectivity and Diffusion Tensor Imaging 77 Todd L. Richards and Virginia W. Berninger

 6 Pre-Attentive Processing of Mandarin Tone and Intonation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials 95 Gui-Qin Ren, Yi-Yuan Tang, Xiao-Qing Li and Xue Sui

 7 Exploring the Effect of Verbal Emotional Words Through Event-Related Brain Potentials 109 Andrés Antonio González-Garrido, Fabiola Reveca Gómez- Velázquez and Julieta Ramos-Loyo

Section 2 Functional Neuroimaging in Vision, Mood and Cognition .

 8 Genetic Marker Mice and Their Use in Understanding Learning and Memory 135 Mark Murphy, Yvette M. Wilson and Christopher Butler

 9 Attractor Hypothesis of Associative Cortex: Insights from a Biophysically Detailed Network Model 155 Mikael Lundqvist, Pawel Herman and Anders Lansner

 10 Multi-Scale Information, Network, Causality, and Dynamics: Mathematical Computation and Bayesian Inference to Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging 181 Michelle Yongmei Wang

 11 The Crossmodal Influence of Odor Hedonics on Facial Attractiveness: Behavioural and fMRI Measures 209 Francis McGlone, Robert A. Österbauer, Luisa M. Demattè and Charles Spence

 12 Seeing with Two Eyes: Integration of Binocular Retinal Projections in the Brain 227 Tenelle A. Wilks, Alan R. Harvey and Jennifer Rodger

 13 The Role of Cortical Feedback Circuitry on Functional Maps of V2 in Primates: Effects on Orientation Tuning and Direction Selectivity 251 Ana Karla Jansen-Amorim, Cecilia Ceriatte, Bruss Lima, Juliana Soares, Mario Fiorani and Ricardo Gattass

 14 Ceasing Thoughts and Brain Activity: MEG Data Analysis 267 Takaaki Aoki, Michiyo Inagawa, Kazuo Nishimura and Yoshikazu Tobinaga

 15 Brain Imaging and the Prediction of Treatment Outcomes in Mood and Anxiety Disorders 279 Leah M. Jappe, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan and Kathryn R. Cullen

 16 Mental Function and Obesity 301 Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Goro Katsuura and Kazuwa Nakao

Section 3 Experimental and Clinical Applications of Functional Neuroimaging .

 17 Surgical Resection of Tumors Infiltrating Left Insula and Perisylvian Opercula — Utility of Anatomic Landmarks Implemented by Intraoperative Functional Brain Mapping 345 Francesco Signorelli, Domenico Chirchiglia, Rodolfo Maduri, Giuseppe Barbagallo and Jacques Guyotat

 18 Optimized Signal Separation for 3D-Polarized Light Imaging 355 Jürgen Dammers, Lukas Breuer, Giuseppe Tabbì and Markus Axer

 19 Causal Relationships and Network Parameters in Effective Brain Connectivity 375 Guiomar Niso, Ernesto Pereda, Fernando Maestú, María Gudín, Sira Carrasco and Francisco del-Pozo

 20 Neuroimaging of Epilepsy: EEG-fMRI in the Presurgical Evaluation of Focal Epilepsy 393 Mirko Avesani, Silvia Giacopuzzi and Antonio Fiaschi

 21 Brain Function in Fibromyalgia: Altered Pain Processing and Cognitive Dysfunction 431 Francisco Mercado, Paloma Barjola, Marisa Fernández-Sánchez, Virginia Guerra and Francisco Gómez-Esquer

 22 FDG- PET Imaging in Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases 463 L. K. Teune, A. L. Bartels and K. L. Leenders

 23 Quantitative Mapping of Angiogenesis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging 477 Teodora-Adriana Perles-Barbacaru and Hana Lahrech .

Sunday, August 21, 2016


Apoptosis or Active Cell Death

Edited by Justine Rudner .

202 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1133-7 .

The development of the mammary gland occurs in four distinct phases: embryogenesis, puberty, pregnancy, and a post-lactational phase involving profound levels of cell death and tissue remodeling. This post-lactational phase is termed post-lactational involution. During embryogenesis, a solid epithelial bud is generated in the embryonic ectoderm. As this bud continues to grow in cell number, the epithelial bud invaginates into the underlying mesenchyme forming the nascent mammary epithelium. The mammary epithelium grows as solid epithelial cords, lengthening distally and branching to form the rudimentary epithelial network. At puberty, ductal elongation continues in a proximal-to-distal direction, and side branches appear along the ducts. The side branches also lengthen distally, and continue to branch. This pattern of distal growth and branching fills the mouse mammary fat pad with an extensively branched epithelium by the end of puberty [6]. Similar to what is seen during embryonic mammary development and patterning, the mammary ducts developing during puberty originally appear in solid epithelial cords. Apoptosis canalizes the luminal space within the ducts, allowing a patent conduit for milk to traverse through the breast epithelium [1, 7]. Ultimately, the rodent mammary epithelium is comprised of a continuous, branching network leading from the nipple to primary ducts and smaller ductules that terminate in terminal end buds (TEBs), blunt ends or alveoli. The inner luminal cells are separated from the basement membrane by an outer myoepithelial layer.
Myoepithelial cells secrete basement membrane components to which the epithelium attaches, and that physically separates the epithelium from the stromal compartment.
Many morphological similarities exist between the mouse mammary gland and the human breast, although some distinctions exist. In the human breast, the cluster of epithelial acini arising from a single terminal duct, referred to as the terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), is thought to be the milk-producing unit of the mammary gland. Therefore, the post-pubertal human breast harbors cells capable of milk production even in the absence of pregnancy whereas the rodent mammary gland does not. However, profound expansion and differentiation of the TDLU population in the human breast is still required in order to render lactation successful ......


 1 Apoptosis and Clearance of the Secretory Mammary Epithelium 1 Jamie C. Stanford and Rebecca S. Cook

 2 Neuronal Apoptosis in HIV-1-Associated Central Nervous Diseases and Neuropathic Pain 29 Mona Desai, Ningjie Hu, Daniel Byrd and Qigui Yu

 3 Translational Control in Tumour Progression and Drug Resistance 51 Carmen Sanges, Nunzia Migliaccio, Paolo Arcari and Annalisa Lamberti

 4 Apoptosis and Activation-Induced Cell Death 73 Joaquín H. Patarroyo S. and Marlene I. Vargas V.

 5 Extra-Telomeric Effects of Telomerase (hTERT) in Cell Death 95 Gregory Lucien Bellot and Xueying Wang

 6 Apoptosis During Cellular Pattern Formation 113 Masahiko Takemura and Takashi Adachi-Yamada

 7 Programmed Cell Death in T Cell Development 125 Qian Nancy Hu and Troy A. Baldwin

 8 Drug Resistance and Molecular Cancer Therapy: Apoptosis Versus Autophagy 155 Rebecca T. Marquez, Bryan W. Tsao, Nicholas F. Faust and Liang Xu .



Edited by Deepa Bhartiya and Nibedita Lenka .

638 pages . 
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1192-4 .

Pluripotency is basically defined as the potential to give rise to all three germ layer derivatives reflecting to 200 odd cell types present in the body, and except the extra-embryonic cell types. It could be either (i) inherent as seen in case of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryo, embryonic/primordial germ (EG/PG) cells derived from developing gonads, embronal carcinoma (EC) cells or (ii) acquired. The latter category includes the cells from adult tissues reprogrammed to attain the pluripotent state and functioning similar to ES cells. This could be achieved either by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or by incorporating a set of transcription factors specific to ES cells into somatic cells and their transient activation leading to induction of pluripotency in them, the latter being designated as induced pluruipotent stem cells (iPSCs) pioneered by Dr. Shinya Yamanaka (the recipient of Nobel Prize in Physiology / Medicine for the year 2012 along with Sir Dr. John Gordon, the father of reprogramming phenomenon).
Undoubtedly the recent progress in Stem Cells research field has opened up a wider horizon with various interesting avenues for explorations in basic Biology and Development and on successful broad spectral implication of stem cells in cell replacement therapy, gene therapy, live stock improvement and tissue engineering as well as in pharmaceutical industries.
However, a priori requirement is to have the mechanistic understanding and address the safety vs. the efficacy issue including the ethical concerns. In an effort in this line, the book, “Pluripotent Stem Cells” is a compendium addressing the aforesaid aspects. Indeed wide gamut of topics has been covered in the book under various sections with contributions from experts in the stated field concerning diverse aspects of pluripotent stem cells. We hope that the book would add up to the existing knowledge on pluripotent stem cells.

Dr. Deepa Bhartiya
National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (NIRRH),

Dr. Nibedita Lenka
National Centre for Cell Science,
Pune University Campus,
Ganeshkhind, Pune, India


Section 1 Pluripotent Stem Cells: The Genesis and Means .

 1 An Overview of Pluripotent Stem Cells 3 Deepa Bhartiya, Punam Nagvenkar, Kalpana Sriraman and Ambreen Shaikh

 2 Pluripotent Adult Stem Cells: A Potential Revolution in Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering 25 Tsz Kin Ng, Daniel Pelaez, Veronica R. Fortino, Jordan Greenberg and Herman S. Cheung

 3 De-Differentiation of Somatic Cells to a Pluripotent State 39 Cristiane V. Wenceslau, Irina Kerkis, Nelson F. Lizier and Alexandre Kerkis

 4 The Dark Side of Pluripotency – Cancer Stem Cell 65 Patricia Ng and Wang Cheng-I

 5 Conditions and Techniques for Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Derivation and Culture 85 Kun-Hsiung Lee

 6 Human Testis–Derived Pluripotent Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 117 Hideyuki Kobayashi, Koichi Nagao and Koichi Nakajima

 7 Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Dental Pulp Somatic Cells 131 Nelson F. Lizier, Irina Kerkis and Cristiane V. Wenceslau

Section 2 Mechanistic Underpinning .

 8 Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pluripotency 153 Erhard Bieberich and Guanghu Wang

 9 Stem Cells and Epigenetic Reprogramming 179 Perla Cota, Mehdi Shafa and Derrick E. Rancourt

 10 Epigenetic Reprogramming in Stem Cells 205 Richard L. Eckert, Yasin Kizilyer and Candace L. Kerr

 11 Multiple Paths to Reprogramming 227 Antonio Lo Nigro and Catherine M. Verfaillie

 12 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Current and Emerging Technologies 263 Jacob Kimmel and Kiminobu Sugaya

 13 Molecular Mechanisms of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency 283 Guofeng Han, Hongtao Wang and Jijun Hao

 14 Epigenetic Instability in Embryonic Stem Cells 301 Takuro Horii and Izuho Hatada

 15 Function of KLF4 in Stem Cell Biology 317 Ying Shi and Walden Ai

 16 β1,4-Galactosyltransferases, Potential Modifiers of Stem Cell Pluripotency and Differentiation 345 Michael Wassler

Section 3 Therapeutic Implications and Ethical Concerns .

 17 Advances in Stem Cell Therapies 375 Joel Sng and Thomas Lufkin

18 Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy – From Bench to Bed 397 Laura E. Sperling

 19 Disease Models for the Genetic Cardiac Diseases 415 Mari Pekkanen-Mattila, Kristiina Rajala and Katriina Aalto-Setälä

 20 Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Human Cardiac Diseases 439 Calvin C. Sheng and Charles C. Hong

 21 Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cardiac Cell Therapy: The Application of Cell Sheet Technology 459 Hidetoshi Masumoto and Jun K. Yamashita

 22 Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases 477 Roxana Nat, Andreas Eigentler and Georg Dechant

 23 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Source of Hepatocytes 517 Minoru Tomizawa, Fuminobu Shinozaki, Takao Sugiyama, Shigenori Yamamoto, Makoto Sueishi and Takanobu Yoshida

 24 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Therapeutic Applications in Monogenic and Metabolic Diseases, and Regulatory and Bioethical Considerations 529 Antonio Liras, Cristina Segovia and Aline S. Gabán

 25 Safety Assessment of Reprogrammed Cells Prior to Clinical Applications: Potential Approaches to Eliminate Teratoma Formation 555 Juan Carlos Polanco and Andrew L. Laslett

 26 Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 567 Shohreh Mashayekhan, Maryam Hajiabbas and Ali Fallah

 27 Ethical Considerations on Stem Cell Research 603 Andreas M. Weiss, Michael Breitenbach, Mark Rinnerthaler and Günter Virt .



Edited by Theo van de Ven and Louis Godbout .

376 pages . 
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1183-2 .

Cellulose is destined to play a major role in the emerging bioeconomy. Awareness of the environment and a depletion of fossil fuels are some of the driving forces for looking at forest biomaterials for an alternative source of energy, chemicals and materials. The importance of cellulose is widely recognized world-wide and as such the field of cellulose science is expanding exponentially. Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, has unique properties which makes it an ideal starting point for transforming it into useful materials. To achieve this, a solid knowledge of cellulose is essential. As such this book on cellulose, the first in a series of three, is very timely. It deals with fundamental aspect of cellulose, giving the reader a good appreciation of the richness of cellulose properties. Book Cellulose – Fundamental Aspects is a good introduction to books Cellulose – Medical, Pharmaceutical and Electronic Applications and Cellulose – Biomass Conversion, in which applications of cellulose and its conversion to other materials are treated.

Theo van de Ven
Department of Chemistry at McGill University,
Louis Godbout
Academic Associate at McGill University Pulp and Paper Research Centre,


 1 Advanced-Microscopy Techniques for the Characterization of Cellulose Structure and Cellulose-Cellulase Interactions 1 Jose M. Moran-Mirabal

 2 Structural Characteristics and Thermal Properties of Native Cellulose 45 Matheus Poletto, Vinícios Pistor and Ademir J. Zattera

 3 Supra-Molecular Structure and Chemical Reactivity of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR 69 Viren Chunilall, Tamara Bush and Per Tomas Larsson

 4 Cellulosic Fibers: Role of Matrix Polysaccharides in Structure and Function 91 Polina Mikshina, Tatyana Chernova, Svetlana Chemikosova, Nadezhda Ibragimova, Natalia Mokshina and Tatyana Gorshkova

 5 Cellulose Microfibril Angle in Wood and Its Dynamic Mechanical Significance 113 Tamer A. Tabet and Fauziah Abdul Aziz

 6 Direct Dissolution of Cellulose: Background, Means and Applications 143 Carina Olsson and Gunnar Westman

 7 Rapid Dissolution of Cellulose in Ionic Liquid with Different Methods 179 Wu Lan, Chuan-Fu Liu, Feng-Xia Yue and Run-Cang Sun

 8 Electric Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose 197 Alexandar Metodiev Zhivkov

 9 Implications of Cellulose in Modeling the Behavior of Vegetal Additive Materials in Clay Based Ceramics: Technical and Archaeological Issues 227 Ferenc Kristály

 10 Removal of Excess Cellulose and Associated Polysaccharides in Fruit and Vegetable By-Products – Implication for Use in Feed for Monogastric Farm Animals 249 Annie King

 11 Cellulose Langmuir-Blodgett Films for Moisture and Gaseous Molecular Sensing System 269 Hiroyuki Kusano, Shin-ichi Kimura and Masahiko Kitagawa

 12 Analysis of Relaxation Behavior of Free Radicals in Irradiated Cellulose Using Pulse and Continuous-Wave Electron Spin Resonance 285 Hiromi Kameya and Mitsuko Ukai

 13 Structure - Properties Interrelationships in Multicomponent Solutions Based on Cellulose and Fibers Spun Therefrom 303 Ludmila Golova, Igor Makarov, Ludmila Kuznetsova, Elena Plotnikova and Valery Kulichikhin

 14 Cellulose Nanofibers and Its Applications for Resin Reinforcements 343 Mariko Yoshioka, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Satoru Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Kushizaki, Ryo Ishiguro, Toshiki Kabutomori, Takeo Imanishi and Nobuo Shiraishi .



Edited by Theo van de Ven and John Kadla .

Open Access .
234 pages .
ISBN 978-953-51-1172-6 .

Cellulose is only one of the components of biomass, although being the most abundant. To make useful chemicals or materials from cellulose requires as the first step the separation of cellulose from biomass. Various issues of cellulose extraction and its conversion are discussed in the chapters of this book on cellulose, the third and last one of a series of books on cellulose. This conversion of cellulose is an integral part of the biorefinery concept, an effort to derive optimum value from all biomass components, and as such compulsory reading for students and researchers in this area.

Theo van de Ven
Department of Chemistry at McGill University,

John Kadla
University of British Columbia,


 1 Hydrothermal Conversion of Cellulose to Glucose and Oligomers in Dilute Aqueous Formic Acid Solution 1 Toshitaka Funazukuri

 2 Cellulose Acetate for Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion 17 Stefan Zepnik, Tilo Hildebrand, Stephan Kabasci, Hans-Joachim Ra-dusch and Thomas Wodke

 3 Production of Biofuels from Cellulose of Woody Biomass 45 Pedram Fatehi

 4 Fungal Biodegradation of Agro-Industrial Waste 75 Shereen A. Soliman, Yahia A. El-Zawahry and Abdou A. El-Mougith

 5 Recombinant Cellulase and Cellulosome Systems 101 Andrew S. Wieczorek, Damien Biot-Pelletier and Vincent J.J. Martin

 6 Lignocellulosic Biomass Utilization Toward Biorefinery Using Meshophilic Clostridial Species 131 Yutaka Tamaru and Ana M. López-Contreras

 7 Sulfur Trioxide Micro-Thermal Explosion for Rice Straw Pretreatment 145 Ri-Sheng Yao and Feng-He Li

 8 Raman Imaging of Lignocellulosic Feedstock 159 Notburga Gierlinger, Tobias Keplinger, Michael Harrington and Manfred Schwanninger

 9 The Overview of Thermal Decomposition of Cellulose in Lignocellulosic Biomass 193 Dekui Shen, Rui Xiao, Sai Gu and Huiyan Zhang .



Edited by Theo van de Ven and Louis Godbout .

314 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1191-7 .

This book on cellulose, the second in a series of three, deals with the many applications of cellulose, both established ones and those that are emerging. It shows the richness in the way cellulose can be modified to serve a large variety of functions, varying from medical, pharmaceutical and bioelectronics applications. We hope that with these examples the imagination of the reader is stimulated and may him- or herself attempt to find new, fascinating applications of cellulose.

Theo van de Ven
Department of Chemistry at McGill University,

Louis Godbout
Academic Associate at McGill University Pulp and Paper Research Centre,


 1 Cellulose Expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Other Environmental Pseudomonads 1 Andrew J. Spiers, Yusuf Y. Deeni, Ayorinde O. Folorunso, Anna Koza, Olena Moshynets and Kamil Zawadzki

 2 Effect of Polymorphism on the Particle and Compaction Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose 27 John Rojas

 3 Application of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives in Pharmaceutical Industries 47 Javad Shokri and Khosro Adibkia

 4 Cellulose-Based Bioelectronic Devices 67 Ana Baptista, Isabel Ferreira and João Borges

 5 Cellulose - A Biomaterial with Cell-Guiding Property 83 Miretta Tommila, Anne Jokilammi, Risto Penttinen and Erika Ekholm

 6 Magnetic Responsive Cellulose Nanocomposites and Their Applications 105 Shilin Liu, Xiaogang Luo and Jinping Zhou

 7 Probing the Interaction Between Cellulose and Cellulase with a Nanomechanical Sensor 125 Jun Xi, Wenjian Du, and Linghao Zhong

 8 Cellulose and Its Derivatives Use in the Pharmaceutical Compounding Practice 141 Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho and Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares

 9 Plasma Induced Hydrophilic Cellulose Wound Dressing 163 Zdenka Persin, Miran Mozetic, Alenka Vesel, Tina Maver, Uros Maver and Karin Stana Kleinschek

 10 Bioactive Bead Type Cellulosic Adsorbent for Blood Purification 195 Shenqi Wang and Yaoting Yu

 11 The Development and Application of Cellulose-Based Stationary Phases in Stereoselective Separation of Chiral Pesticides 215 Jing Qiu, Shouhui Dai, Tingting Chai, Wenwen Yang, Shuming Yang and Hualin Zhao

 12 Cellulose Functionalysed with Grafted Oligopeptides 241 Justyna Fraczyk, Beata Kolesinska, Inga Relich and Zbigniew J. Kaminski

 13 Antiquarian Books as Source of Environment Historical Data 279 Jürgen Schram, Rasmus Horst, Mario Schneider, Marion Tegelkamp, Hagen Thieme and Michael Witte .



Edited by Carol Bernstein and Harris Bernstein .

132 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-1197-9 .

Meiosis is the key process underlying sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, occurring in single-celled eukaryotes and in most multicellular eukaryotes including animals and most plants. Thus meiosis is of considerable interest, both at the scientific level and at the level of natural human curiosity about sexual reproduction. Improved understanding of important aspects of meiosis has emerged in recent years and major questions are starting to be answered, such as “How does meiosis occur at the molecular level?”, “How did meiosis and sex arise during evolution?”, “What is the major adaptive function of meiosis and sex?”. In addition, changing perspectives on meiosis and sex have led to the question: “How should meiosis be taught?” .
The first chapter in this book reviews a number of recent studies indicating that doublestranded DNA molecules can distinguish “self” from “non-self” and consequently can undergo self-assembly in a pair-wise manner even in a solution of heterogeneous doublestranded DNA species. These studies used experimental approaches involving electrophoretic analysis and atomic force microscopy, analysis of liquid-crystalline aggregates, and a technique involving parallel single molecule magnetic tweezers applied to isolated double-stranded DNA. In addition, this chapter reviewed evidence that this type of selective association between homologous DNA molecules also applies to nucleosomes.
Self-assembly of homologous double-stranded DNA molecules and homologous nucleosomes is a central molecular step in meiosis.
The next three chapters are concerned with the origin and function of meiosis. The first two of these chapters emphasize that central enzymatic features of meiosis were already present in the prokaryotic ancestors of eukaryotes. One of these chapters went further, indicating that the prokaryotic ancestor was likely able to undergo transformation, a process of DNA transfer between individual bacteria. In transformation, the central proteins catalyzing this process are homologous to proteins with similar functions in meiosis. The other of the first two chapters emphasizes the triggering role of DNA damage in initiating meiosis as well as the purging role of deleterious mutations in diploid-haploid cycles. The major function of meiosis, dealt with extensively in these two chapters, is DNA repair of unavoidable damages in germ line DNA. Especially discussed is the need for meiosis-provided homologous recombinational repair of double-strand breaks and cross-links in the germ line. Both chapters discuss difficulties with earlier proposals that the main selective advantage of meiosis is the long term benefit of producing genetic variation. The third chapter in this section points out characteristics of the eukaryotic cell (such as coding for mRNA capping enzymes and phage-type RNA polymerases in mitochondria) that could have been derived from symbiogenic complex viruses. These characteristics led the author to propose a viral eukaryogenesis theory. By this theory, meiosis is derived from the processes by which a postulated viral ancestor of the nucleus infected new hosts.
The last chapter of the book presents a practical approach to teaching meiosis and gives examples of how a low cost program can be set up. This program will allow students to understand the general processes employed by different types of plants that undergo meiosis. It emphasizes gross morphology and aspects of morphology that can be observed with a hand lens or under a microscope.

Carol Bernstein and Harris Bernstein
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
University of Arizona, USA


I - Molecular Basis of Meiosis .

 1 Intrinsic Homology-Sensing and Assembling Property of Chromatin Fiber 3 Jun-ichi Nishikawa, Yasutoshi Shimooka and Takashi Ohyama

II - Origin and Function of Meiosis .

 2 Meiosis and the Paradox of Sex in Nature 17 Elvira Hörandl

 3 Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis 41 Harris Bernstein and Carol Bernstein

 4 Meiosis: Its Origin According to the Viral Eukaryogenesis Theory 77 Philip Bell

III - Teaching Meiosis .

 5 Teaching of Meiosis and Mitosis in Schools of Developing Countries: How to Improve Education with a Plant Reproduction Project 101 Erica Duarte-Silva, Adriano Silvério and Angela M. H. D. Silva .