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ADVANCES IN MALIGNANT MELANOMA – CLINICAL AND RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES

MALIGNANT MELANOMA
Edited by April W. Armstrong .
264 pages . 

This book titled Advances in Malignant Melanoma - Clinical and Research Perspectives 
represents an international effort to highlight advances in our understanding of 
malignant melanoma from both clinical and research perspectives. The authors for this 
book consist of an international group of recognized leaders in melanoma research 
and patient care, and they share their unique perspectives regarding melanoma 
epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic and prognostic tools, phenotypes, treatment,
and future research directions.
The book is divide into four sections: (1) Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Melanoma, 
(2) Clinical Phenotypes of Melanoma, (3) Investigational Treatments for Melanoma 
and Pigmentary Disorders, and (4) Advances in Melanoma Translational Research.
This book does not attempt to exhaustively cover all aspects of the aforementioned 
areas of melanoma; rather, it is a compilation of the pearls and unique perspectives on 
the relevant advances in melanoma during the recent years.

Section 1: Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Melanoma

Professors Fisher and Hawryluk from the United States of America begin this book by 
an invigorating discussion of melanoma epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical 
phenotypes. The authors highlight increases in the incidence of melanoma in the 
Caucasian population and the overall relatively stable mortality rates. The incidence 
and mortality rates of melanoma are also framed in terms of geography and ethnicity 
using data worldwide. Professors Fisher and Hawryluk also examine intrinsic and 
extrinsic risk factors that predispose patients to melanoma development. . While 
mutations in either BRAF or NRAS are found in a significant majority of the most 
common cutaneous melanoma types, other phenotypes such as lentigo maligna
melanoma have no known specific genetic mutation to date.
In the chapter“Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma by Region 
Around the World”, Dr. Godar from the United States of America analyzes the 
incidences of cutaneous malignant melanoma in the years 1980 and 2000 worldwide 
and factors that might contribute to development of melanoma, with an emphasis on 
the role of ultraviolet light.
In their chapter“Skin Pigmentation and Melanoma Risk”, Professors D'Orazio, 
Marsch, Lagrew, and Veith from the United States review the link between melanoma 
and skin complexion, focusing on the genes that control innate and adaptive skin 
pigmentation and the mechanisms by which pigmentation differences may account for 
melanoma risk. Specifically, the authors highlighted how melanocortin 1 receptor 
(MC1R) signaling pathway may affect melanoma risk and the efficiency by which an 
individual can adaptively tan and repair UV-induced photolesions after UV exposure.

Section 2: Clinical Phenotypes of Melanoma

In the chapter“Desmoplastic Melanoma,”Professors Cheng and Armstrong from the 
United States of America review the current literature of desmoplastic melanoma with 
regards to its epidemiology, clinical presentations, histopathology, treatment, and 
prognosis.
In the chapter,“Melanoma during Pregnancy”, Professors Popovic, Grgic, and Popovic 
from Serbia discuss melanomas that develop during pregnancy, an evolving and 
important topic in melanoma detection and management of this special population.
The authors summarize the literature regarding epidemiology, prognostic factors, and 
mortality rates for in this population and highlight the importance of further research 
that will enable optimal management.
In the chapter“Familial Melanoma in Italy: a Review”, Professors Funari, Menin, 
Elefanti, D'Andrea, and Scaini from Italy discuss familial melanoma in Italy, a country 
usually considered to have a low melanoma incidence. In Italy, there are geographical 
variations in melanoma incidence between the north and the south. In this chapter, 
the authors discussed high risk genes associated with familial melanoma, genetic 
counseling and testing for familial melanoma, CDKN2A unclassified variants, and 
mutational analysis of melanoma-predisposing genes in Italy.
In the chapter“Genetics of Uveal Melanoma”, Professors van den Bosch, van Beek, 
Kiliç, Naus, Paridaens, and de Klein from the Netherlands discuss updates in 
cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches to discoveries in uveal melanoma and 
implications for current and future management of patients with uveal melanoma.

Section 3: Investigational Treatments for Melanoma and Pigmentary Disorders

In the chapter“Targeting IGF-1 Based Melanoma Immunotherapy”, Professor Duc 
from France discusses research using IGF-1 as target for melanoma immunotherapy.
Specifically, Dr. Duc considers IGF-1 as target in melanoma immunotherapy, in vitro 
analyses of inhibited IGF-1 melanoma cells, in vivo effects of inhibited IGF-1 
melanoma cells, and characterization of immune effectors stimulated by modified 
melanoma cells exhibiting inhibited IGF-1 expression.
In the chapter,“Melanin Hyperpigmentation Inhibitors from Natural Resources”, 
Professors Matsuda, Murata, Itoh, Masuda and Naruto from Japan discuss 
melanogenesis and ways to influence this process with natural plant sources. They 
report a number of ingredients with an inhibitory effect on melanin hyperpigmentation.
Specifically, the authors describe their screening strategy and studies on targeted 
melanin hyperpigmentation inhibitors from natural plant sources, such as Umbelliferae, 
Ericaceae, Rubiaceae, Piperaceae and Rutaceae plants.

Section 4: Advances in Melanoma Translational Research

In the chapter,“Caveolin-1 in Melanoma Progression,”Professors Lobos-González, 
Aguilar, Fernández, Sanhueza, and Quest from Chile discuss work from their 
laboratory focusing on a scaffolding protein called caveolin-1. This protein is 
implicated in a large number of cellular processes, including caveolae formation and 
vesicular transport, cholesterol transport, and the regulation of signal transduction.
Initial reports also suggested that caveolin-1 might function as a tumor suppressor. In 
this chapter, the authors summarize the literature regarding the function of caveolin-1 
in cancer development, mechanisms, and relevance of caveolin-1 in the development 
of melanomas.
In the chapter,“IMP3 and Malignant Melanoma”, Professors Mentrikoski and Xu from 
the United States of America highlight challenges of distinguishing among 
melanocytic lesions based on histological morphologic criteria alone and the need for 
reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The authors discussed their work in 
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), which functions 
to promote tumor cell proliferation by enhancing IGF-II protein expression.
Specifically, the authors discuss the diagnostic value of IMP3 in the differential 
diagnosis of melanocytic lesions and in separating intranodal nevi from metastatic 
melanoma, as well as its prognostic value in malignant melanoma.
Finally, in the chapter“Effects of Social Stress on Immunomodulation and Tumor 
Development”, Professors Vegas, Garmendia, Arregi and Azpiroz from Spain take us 
on an interesting journey through the field of psychoneuroimmunology as it relates to 
melanoma. Specifically, the authors discuss communication pathways between the 
central nervous system and the immune system, the relationship between social stress 
and cancer, the effect of social stress on melanoma tumor development, and 
psychosocial intervention and cancer progression.

Conclusion
We deeply appreciate your interest in this book. We hope that the contents of this book 
will inspire further research to advance our understanding of melanoma pathogenesis 
and to find promising novel treatments for this cancer.

April W. Armstrong
University of California Davis Health System
Sacramento, California
United States of America



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