Open Access Medical Books

CARBOHYDRATES – COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES ON GLYCOBIOLOGY AND GLYCOTECHNOLOGY

CARBOHYDRATES

Edited by Chuan-Fa Chang .

570 pages .
Open Access .
Carbohydrates consist of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and other important modification atoms. They are the major component of plants and comprise more than 40% of energy  in human diets. In addition to be the basic energy source and biomaterial building  blocks, carbohydrates are also involved in many physiological and pathological  events. Because the carbon atom has four valence electrons, it can form chemical bonds  with four different atoms. As a consequence, much of constitutional isomers and  stereoisomers are found in carbohydrates. In addition, the cyclization of a linear  carbohydrate to form five, six or seven membered hemiacetal/hemiketal ring also  increases the complexity of glycan structures. Since the late nineteenth century, many  chemists devoted their life to figure out these chemical and biochemical questions. The  slow development of analytical methods and instruments has prevented the biological  roles of carbohydrates from being investigated and characterized until the 1970s. Due  to the difficulties of getting a lot of pure and homogeneous carbohydrates from natural  sources, carbohydrate organic synthesis has become an essential and flourish subject  in Glycobiology.
Because carbohydrates are involved in multiple disciplines, this book consists of 23 excellent chapters, classified into five catogories - Chemistry and Biochemistry,  Microbiology and Immunology, Carbohydrate metabolism, Animal and Plant, and  Biotechnology. In section one, organic reactions of carbohydrates and the analysis of  carbohydrate derivatives are discussed. A high-throughputable carbohydrate  microarray without any wash steps is also introduced. This reliable platform not only  offers consistent results with literature - it can be applied for the determination of  pathogen-carbohydrate interactions. The importance of glycans in infectious disease  has been well studied, as well as the immune response and signal transduction  pathway. Chapters in section 2 introduce the studies of DC-SIGN antagonists and IL-  13 in a viral infection, and the biosynthesis of carbohydrates in a microorganism. The  metabolism of carbohydrates in bacteria and drosophila is collected in section 3. This  section also discusses the effects of starvation in carbohydrate metabolism in marine  bacteria. Section 4 contains some non-popular topics about the digestion of  carbohydrates in ruminants, the influences of environment and fungi in plant  carbohydrates, and the responses of plants under sugar starvation. The observation,  discovery and results of these chapters are specialized and unique. This book is also an  encouragement to people who work in the non-mainstream investigations. The final  section is the technology and application of carbohydrates in microbes. They can be  used as prebiotics, to form biomass, as well as healthy supplements.
I hope this comprehensive book can serve well as an uncomplicated introduction to different disciplines of carbohydrate investigators and glycobiologists. Consulting the  literature cited in the chapters is suggested for readers who need further information. 
The corrections, improvements and suggestions from readers for all the chapters are  welcome and appreciated.

Chuan-Fa Chang
Department of Medical Laboratory, Science and Biotechnology, Medical College,
National Cheng Kung University,
Tainan city,
Taiwan
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CONTENTS :

Section 1 Chemistry and Biochemistry 



Chapter 1 Carbohydrate Microarray 3 Chuan-Fa Chang

Chapter 2 Conversion of Carbohydrates Under Microwave Heating 21 
Aurore Richel and Michel Paquot

Chapter 3 Boron-Carbohydrate Interactions 37 
Brighid Pappin, Milton J. Kiefel and Todd A. Houston

Chapter 4 Liquid Chromatography – 
Mass Spectrometry of Carbohydrates Derivatized with Biotinamidocaproyl Hydrazide 55 Stephanie Bank and Petra Kapková

Chapter 5 Investigation of Carbohydrates and Their
Derivatives as Crystallization Modifiers 81 Josef Jampílek and Jiří Dohnal

Chapter 6 Glycosidases – A Mechanistic Overview 117 
Natércia F. Brás , Pedro A. Fernandes, Maria J. Ramos and Nuno M.F.S.A. Cerqueira

Section 2 Microbiology and Immunology 


Chapter 7 DC-SIGN Antagonists – 
A Paradigm of C-Type Lectin Binding Inhibition 137 Marko Anderluh

Chapter 8 Broad Antiviral Activity of Carbohydrate-Binding 
Agents Against Dengue Virus Infection 161 Marijke Alen and Dominique Schols

Chapter 9 IL-13, Asthma and Glycosylation
in Airway Epithelial Repair 187 Samuel J. Wadsworth, S. Jasemine Yang and Delbert R. Dorscheid

Chapter 10 Metabolism of Carbochidrates in the Cell of Green 
Photosintesis Sulfur Bacteria 229 M. B. Gorishniy and S. P. Gudz

Chapter 11 Digestion in Ruminants 245 
Barbara Niwińska

Section 3 Carbohydeate Metabolism 


Chapter 12 Resistant Dextrins as Prebiotic 261 
Katarzyna Śliżewska, Janusz Kapuśniak, Renata Barczyńska and Kamila Jochym

Chapter 13 Food Structure and Carbohydrate Digestibility 289 
Suman Mishra, Allan Hardacre and John Monro

Chapter 14 Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose 317
Alejandro Reyes-DelaTorre, María Teresa Peña-Rangel and Juan Rafael Riesgo-Escovar

Chapter 15 Starvation Conditions Effects on Carbohydrate 
Metabolism of Marine Bacteria 339 Monia El Bour

Chapter 16 Adapting the Consumption of 
Carbohydrates for Diabetic Athletes 355 Anna Novials and Serafín Murillo

Section 4 Animal and Plant 


Chapter 17 Environmental and Genetic Variation for 
Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Cool Season Forage Grasses 373 Ali Ashraf Jafari

Chapter 18 Alterations in Root Morphology of Rootstock 
Peach Trees Caused by Mycorrhizal Fungi 389 José Luis da Silva Nunes, Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza, Gilmar Arduino Bettio Marodin, José Carlos Fachinello and Jorge Ernesto de Araújo Mariath

Chapter 19 Plant Responses to Sugar Starvation 409 
Iwona Morkunas, Sławomir Borek, Magda Formela and Lech Ratajczak

Section 5 Biotechnology 


Chapter 20 Carbohydrates from Biomass: Sources 
and Transformation by Microbial Enzymes 441 Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães

Chapter 21 Starch and Microbial α-Amylases: 
From Concepts to Biotechnological Applications 459 Amira El-Fallal, Mohammed Abou Dobara, Ahmed El-Sayed and Noha Omar

Chapter 22 Algal Polysaccharides, Novel Applications and Outlook 489 
Stefan Kraan

Chapter 23 Biological Applications 
of Plants and Algae Lectins: An Overview 533 Edson Holanda Teixeira, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Kyria Santiago do Nascimento, Victor Alves Carneiro, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Bruno Rocha da Silva, Alexandre Holanda Sampaio and Benildo Sousa Cavada .


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