Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Rakesh Sharma .

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of brain is typically called fMRI. It has 
become a fundamental modality of imaging at any MRI suite of service center or 
hospital. Our book has been compiled with the aim of incorporating a wide range of 
applied neuropsychological evaluation methods. It is aimed at those who are 
embarking on neuropsychological research projects, as well as relatively experienced 
psychologists and neuroscientists who might wish to further develop their 
experiments. While it is not possible to detail every possible technique related to 
functional evaluation of brain in activation by using fMRI, the book attempts to 
provide working tips with examples and analysis to a wide range of the more
commonly available techniques.
The methods described in this book are aimed at giving the reader a glimpse of some 
existing methods with the context in which each analytical fMRI method is applied, as 
well as providing some basis of familiarizing oneself with these techniques. While 
fMRI has been used in the study of cognition and neuroscience over the last two 
decades, it was only in the later part of 20th century that it has become an integral part 
of many psychological, behavioral and neuroscience research environments. This is, at 
least in part, due to the continued development of new statistical analysis methods, 
new fMRI hardware with scanning and monitoring accessories, better physiocompatible 
MRI suites, robust and fast acquisition techniques such as EPI-fMRI, GEfMRI, 
etc., thanks to the continued joint efforts of governmental, industrial and 
academic institutions globally. Regardless of the MRI systems and the brands used, 
one should always be able to understand and justify the use of the right imaging fMRI 
protocol, designed for a specific study. With this aim, different approaches of fMRI 
methods of neuropsychological evaluation are presented in separate chapters. For 
learners, basic knowledge, safety issues, limitations and skepticism in fMRI data 
analysis and interpretation is presented with a working fMRI protocol for
morphological MRI, MRSI data acquisition and analysis of neuronal dysfunction in 
multiple sclerosis.
In chapter 1, the author emphasized the basic concepts of fMRI, the need for 
quantitative calibration using gold standard, selection of correct paradigm, fMRI 
parameters, accrued experience in study design including design type, Blocked, Event- 
Related stimulus or mixed events, number of subjects, data size for each subject, 
stimulus conditions, and image acquisition parameters: repetitions for each condition, 
applied stimulus, TR/TE, and Number of slices. In chapter 2, authors introduced the 
physiological basis of neuroactivation in the brain during different motor-sensory 
actions with technical aspects of BOLD signal generation and interpretation. Imaging 
processing methods are discussed, with limitations and future prospects. fMRI 
technique and applications are reviewed with several examples. In chapter 3, we can 
read about the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to obtain a 
biomarker in motor processing pathways in order to indicate the relationship between 
internal adaptation (influenced by conscious and non-conscious filtering and decisionmaking 
networks) and external environmental changes through the eye. The author 
claims that the clinical applications of fMRI biomarkers could include assessments of 
functional breakdowns in disease states, e.g., seizure disorders, memory deficits and 
visuo-cognitive abilities in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and eye movement 
control and balance in patients with traumatic brain injuries or Parkinson’s disease. In 
chapter 4, authors hypothesized the performance of the hand-gesture task under the 
guidance of multiple rules for games such as rock–paper–scissors or null–two–five, 
using a balanced rule-guided behavioral system with the mirror system to overcome a 
covert and automatic tendency to imitate observed hand postures. Authors concluded 
that two different brain regions, for perception and motor-sensory, act under the 
guidance of behavioral rules in order to perform rule-guided behaviors and activities 
in rule-selective brain regions. In chapter 5, authors explored the application of 
Constraint-induced movement therapy in brain plasticity to evaluate the recovery 
after stroke and identify the specific correlations between movement recovery clinical 
endpoints and the fMRI data. Furthermore, the authors highlighted the needs such as 
common methodology of analysis and reporting the fMRI data for better comparison 
and interpretation of the results between studies, a comparison of different therapeutic 
techniques on the brain cortex reorganization and upper extremity recovery, and the 
establishment of optimal time for their application after stroke, with an aim to 
understand the treatment programs. In chapter 6, authors presented the potential of 
fMRI to evaluate the Reliability analysis required for the assessment of data to be 
structured in similar events or replicates performing the same task in different days 
under multiple experimental conditions. Authors emphasized the significance of 
reliability maps in detection of local infringements and selection of ROIs, along with 
temporal response functions into GLM for testing stimulus and task effects in the brain 
for each individual patient. In chapter 7, authors emphasized the precise analysis of 
different series in diagnosis and management of refractory SMA epilepsy in long-term 
follow-up. Conceptually, surgical approaches of the fontal lobe (frontopolar, of the 
convexity, central, orbitofrontal and SMA) must be considered separately and not as 
one sole group. In chapter 8, the author emphasizes that brain supports language 
processing via complex and sophisticated networks in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. 
Furthermore, the author speculates with skepticism on the growing number of fMRI 
studies on language in neurologically intact and injured brains to support relevant 
linguistic generalizations and explore a better neural organization of language, postlesional 
neuroplasticity and recovery processes in support of rigorous investigations 
on issues of linguistic computations, bilingual language functionality, non-dominant 
hemisphere in brain. In chapter 9, authors reviewed the application of multimodal use 
of fMRI combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in dyslexia of brain. 
Non-invasive technique was used to measure the neurochemicals distribution and Nacetylaspartate 
(NAA) and Choline (Cho) ratio within cerebellum to compare Western 
vs. Eastern data. Chemical shift imaging and logographic writing, linguistics testing in 
dyslexia demonstrated left vs. right cerebellar hemisphere differences. However, the 
fMRI-MR spectroscopy multimodal approach is in infancy but has a high potential in 
defining neuro disorders. ......

Rakesh Sharma, PhD,
Professor (Nanotechnology)
Amity University,
Research Professor, Center of Nano-Biotechnology,
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL


Section 1 Basic Concepts of fMRI .

Chapter 1 Current Trends of fMRI in Vision Science: A Review 3
Nasser H. Kashou

Chapter 2 Physiological Basis and Image Processing in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
Neuronal and Motor Activity in Brain 29
Rakesh Sharma and Avdhesh Sharma

Section 2 fMRI Methods in Evaluation of Brain Functions .

Chapter 3 fMRI Analysis of Three Concurrent Processing Pathways 83
Deborah Zelinsky

Chapter 4 Neural Correlates of Rule-Based Perception and Production of Hand Gestures 101
Nobue Kanazawa, Masahiro Izumiyama, Takashi Inoue, Takanori Kochiyama, Toshio Inui and Hajime Mushiake

Chapter 5 Neural Cognitive Correlates of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effect for Children During Chinese Naming 121
Hong-Yan Bi and Qing-Lin Li

Chapter 6 Brain Plasticity Induced by Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Relationship of fMRI and Movement Characteristics 131
Urška Puh

Chapter 7 Reliability Maps in Event Related Functional MRI Experiments 149
Aleksandr A. Simak, Michelle Liou, Alexander Yu. Zhigalov, Jiun-Wei Liou and Phillip E. Cheng

Chapter 8 Language Reorganization After Stroke: Insights from fMRI 167Vanja Kljajevic

Section 3 Multimodal Approaches .

Chapter 9 The Brain Metabolites Within Cerebellum of Native Chinese Speakers who are Using the Traditional Logographic Reading and Writing Systems – A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Approach to Dyslexia 193
Ying-Fang Sun, Ralph Kirby and Chun-Wei Li .

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Published by: younes younes - Wednesday, January 23, 2013


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