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INFLAMMATION, CHRONIC DISEASES AND CANCER – CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND CLINICAL BASES

INFLAMMATION AND CANCER

Edited by Mahin Khatami .

Open Access .


In preparing the preface for this book, it is appropriate to use the historical and amusing footnote that Rudolf Virchow wrote in Cellular Pathology (1865) and to expand on his comment with social context. Virchow’s footnote defined inflammation as “Suppose three people were sitting quietly on a bench, and suddenly a stone came and injured one of them, the others would be excited, not only by the sudden appearance of the stone, but also by the injury done to their companion, to whose help they would feel bound to hasten. Here the stone would be the irritant, the injury the irritament [inflammation], the help an expression of the irritation called forth in the bystanders”. Building on this simple concept, the stone and help from surrounding bystanders may be considered a temporary incident (acute inflammation) that is resolved without serious adverse consequences except that it provides heightened awareness of people in their surroundings!. 
However, the analogy for severe (acute) or chronic inflammatory diseases could be defined as burning of a crowded building (e.g., 9/11 terrorists attack, like a potent pathogen!) that could cause serious disruption to normal activities of the society imposing profound immediate and/or lasting impact that involves local and distant measures; requiring rescue and repair operation teams in an attempt to rescue, reconstruct, repair and salvage the devastations events (systemic involvement) that are often costly and have unwanted and irreparable consequences.
Biologically, acute inflammation is an evolutionary and protective mechanism of body’s immunity that facilitates the organ systems to return to normal physiological homeostasis after encountering a wide range of unwanted internal or external foreign elements (stimuli) such as infective pathogens; viruses, bacteria or parasites, chemical and biological toxins or defective or useless cells such as cancerous cells throughout  life. However, as demonstrated throughout this book, unresolved or chronic inflammation contributes to the induction of a wide range of acute illnesses (e.g.,sepsis, meningitis or respiratory diseases, major trauma), or chronic and ageassociated diseases such as neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, lupus, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, stroke, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular complications and many cancers.
Experts in multidisciplinary fields of inflammatory diseases have contributed valuable reviews and perspectives on the role of inflammation in acute and chronic diseases, and current treatment options. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate that persistent or unresolved inflammation is a common denominator in the genesis and manifestation of  a wide range of diseases and many cancers, particularly in an aging body.
Understanding the fundamental basis of shared and interrelated features of unresolved inflammation in the genesis and progression of diseases are expected to better guide the professionals to strategize more cost-effective designs for treatment, diagnosis and/or prevention of a number of age-associated disabling illnesses or cancer.
Editor is grateful to all contributing authors for developing comprehensive chapters on multidisciplinary fields of inflammatory diseases. This book is dedicated to the loving memory of my parents, Kazem and Badri-Zaman Khatami. The invaluable support and encouragement of the following individuals is also acknowledged with great appreciation: John H. Rockey, MD, Ph.D, mentor/friend and senior colleague at
the University of Pennsylvania, who instilled the love of science and devotion to serve the public in me and who shaped my early career and initially trained me in immunobiology of inflammatory diseases that resulted in our ‘accidental’ discoveriesn 1980’s that are suggestive of the first evidence for a direct association between inflammation and tumorigenesis; Edward J. Massaro, Ph.D., Environmental Protection Agency, Editor in Chief, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, my mentor at the State University of New York at Buffalo and a long time colleague and friend who supported and encouraged me professionally throughout the years; and John H. Bayens, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor at the University of South Carolina and long  time colleague who generously supported and encouraged my work in multidisciplinary fields of inflammation, diabetes and cancer research. The Editor also wishes to pay tribute to the memory of her good friend, Shirin (Shirley) Mirsepassi- Toloui, M.D., (1944-2011), pathologist whose true friendship and support were above 
and beyond the call of duty.



Mahin Khatami, Ph.D.
Inflammation, Aging and Cancer Research
National Cancer Institute (Retired)
he National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
USA

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CONTENT :


Part 1 Dynamics of Immune System and Inflammatory Diseases. 

  1 Inflammation, Aging and Cancer: Friend or Foe? 3 Mahin Khatami

  2 The Impact of Macrophage Membrane Lipid 
Composition on Innate Immune Response Mechanisms 31 Julia Schumann

  3 The Innate Immune Response Mediated by 
TLRs in Atherosclerosis 53 Luis Chávez-Sánchez, Karina Chávez-Rueda, María Victoria Legorreta-Haquet, Eduardo Montoya-Díaz and Francisco Blanco-Favela

  4 Autoimmunity, Atherosclerosis and Apoptotic Cell Clearance 75 Tamar Aprahamian

  5 The Platelet as an Immunomodulator: The Old Thespian with New Roles in Atherosclerosis, Sepsis and Autoimmune Disease 97 Omar L. Esponda, Yaliz Loperena, Gladiany Ramos and A. Valance Washington

  6 Regulatory T Cells and Viral Disease 121 Tanya LeRoith and S. Ansar Ahmed

  7 Inflammation, Immunity and Redox Signaling 145 
Joshua Jabaut and Karina Ckless

  8 Complement Receptors in Inflammation 161 
Priyanka Pundir and Marianna Kulka

  9 Parasitic Infections and Inflammatory Diseases 205 
Joziana M.P. Barçante, Thales A. Barçante, Ana Paula Peconick, Luciano J. Pereira and Walter S. Lima

  10 The Role of Chemokines and Cytokines in the Pathogenesis 
of Periodontal and Periapical Lesions: Current Concepts 219 Gustavo P. Garlet, Andreza M.F. Aranha, Elcia M. Silveira, Andreia Espindola Vieira, Celso M. Queiroz-Junior, Mila F.M. Madeira, Sandra Y. Fukada and Tarcilia A. Silva

  11 Involvement of Microglial Cathepsin B in Pro-Interleukin-1 
Processing and Persistent Pain 265 Hiroshi Nakanishi

  12 Review of Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis 273 C. E. Pang

  13 “Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling” 
Molecules in Infection and Inflammation 279 Berit Carow and Martin E. Rottenberg

  14 Role of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase and S100A8/A9 in the 
Pathophysiology of Chronic Inflammation 307 Sabrina Bréchard, Véronique Schenten and Eric J. Tschirhart.

Part 2 Medical and Pharmacological Aspects of Inflammatory Diseases .


  15 Inflammation in COPD and New Drug Strategies 333 Liam Heaney and Izhaq Masih

  16 Malnutrition and Inflammation 357 Jorge R. Mujico, Fátima Pérez-de-Heredia, Sonia Gómez-Martínez and Ascensión Marcos

  17 Anti-CXCL13 and Anti-TNFα Monoclonal Antibodies 
Combinatorial Treatment Inhibits Autoimmune Disease in a Murine Model of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 375 Debra B. Gardner, Patricia Rafferty, Peter Bugelski and Bailin Liang

  18 Ocular Involvement in Behçet’s Disease 391 
Yonca Aydın Akova and Sirel Gür Güngör

  19 Biologic Agents for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (The Current, the Future and the Controversy) 417 Iyad A. Issa .


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