Open Access Medical Books

LACTIC ACID BACTERIA – R & D FOR FOOD, HEALTH AND LIVESTOCK PURPOSES

LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

Edited by Marcelino Kongo .

670 pages .

Open Access .


The identification of solutions to improve the life and health of consumers, providing  safe food of high quality, is the major concern in Food Science. Towards that goal, preservation methods such as salting, drying, high/low temperature application, fermentation, and more recently, pulsed electric field, high pressure and radiation - alone or combined – may be applied. The choice of the preservation process will depend on the food type, availability of the method, cost effectiveness and the degree of change it causes to the flavor and nutritional features of the food product.

However, few preservation methods present the advantages of fermentation or biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is cheap, widely accessible and meets today’s increasing consumer’s demand for minimally processed/preserved food products. Biopreservation is indeed one of the oldest forms of food preservation technologies and a proved highly efficient non-thermal processing method.
The rapidly changing consumption patterns of the global market and the desire for minimally processed foods is pushing the industry to find processing methods that meet the consumers desire and also increase products safety. LAB fermentation is common in production of dairy, meat, vegetable and fish products, as well as, animal feed. It is based on LAB ability to ferment sugars, especially glucose and galactose, leading to formation of lactic acid, and other metabolites that bring desirable texture and flavors changes to fermented foods, besides increasing their safety via release of bacteriocins. Considerable research is focused on these ribossomaly sintethesized proteins, because of their potential optimized applications in food, pharmaceuticals,

nutraceuticals, and veterinary and human medicine. Their presence in foods is in general considered safe for consumers because they are inactivated by pancreatic or gastric enzyme.
New research in the fields of genomics, proteomics and genetic engineering is helping us understand better LAB physiology, pushing further the boundaries of their potential applications. In fact the isolation and characterization of new LAB strains, is one of the most active fields of research in Food Science today.
Many LAB have been identified as suitable for probiotic foods production - defined as a preparations containing viable defined microorganisms in sufficient numbers, which positively alter the GI tract microbiota. In fact LAB probiotic cultures have been proposed as alternative to antibiotic therapy in patients affected Clostridium difficile.
LAB are applied in production of prebiotics, which are polyssacharides ingredients that encourage the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the GI tract, as well as in the manufacture of enzymes and other pharmaceutical products - namely as potential vehicles for production of new vaccines and new antibiotics.
The compilation and discussion of these many fields of application of LAB is the core of this book. We thank all contributors from around the world that have lay down here their outstanding scientific research and make it available to the vast public of readers - researcher, academics, corporate R & D, students or just curious person interested in the subject. Either way, I hope you enjoy reading it and find the contents of the book  useful.
I would like to thank my wife, Karyne for her support of my academic endeavors, which, from time to time have meant, unfortunately, enjoying a little less of our family time.

J. Marcelino Kongo
Instituto de Inovação Tecnológica dos Açores (INOVA)
Canadian Research Institute of Food Safety
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CONTENTS :


Section 1 Dairy Food Products .


  1 Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter-Cultures for Cheese Processing: 
Past, Present and Future Developments 3 J. Marcelino Kongo

  2 Lactic Acid Bacteria Resistance to Bacteriophage 
and Prevention Techniques to Lower Phage Contamination in Dairy Fermentation 23 A.K. Szczepankowska, R.K. Górecki, P. Kołakowski and J.K. Bardowski

  3 Redox Potential: Monitoring and Role in Development 
of Aroma Compounds, Rheological Properties and Survival of Oxygen Sensitive Strains During the Manufacture of Fermented Dairy Products 73 F. Martin, B. Ebel, C. Rojas, P. Gervais, N. Cayot and R. Cachon

Section 2 Meat Products .


  4 Potential of Fermented Sausage-Associated Lactic Acid 
Bacteria to Degrade Biogenic Amines During Storage 97 Jirasak Kongkiattikajorn

  5 The Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Safety and Flavour 
Development of Meat and Meat Products 129 Lothar Kröckel

Section 3 Vegetable & Cereal Products .


  6 Lactic Acid Bacteria in Biopreservation and 
the Enhancement of the Functional Quality of Bread 155 Belal J. Muhialdin, Zaiton Hassan and Nazamid Saari


  7 Fermentation of Vegetable Juices by Lactobacillus Acidophilus LA-5 173 Lavinia Claudia Buruleanu, Magda Gabriela Bratu, Iuliana Manea, Daniela Avram and Carmen Leane Nicolescu

Section 4 Health Applications Purposes .


  8 Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotics: 
Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Role in Immunomodulation of Human GI Muccosal Barrier 197 Daoud Harzallah and Hani Belhadj

  9 Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiota: 
Implications in Colon Cancer Prevention 217 Katia Sivieri, Raquel Bedani, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini and Elizeu A. Rossi

  10 Highlights in Probiotic Research 243 
Gülden Başyiğit Kılıç


  11 Dose Effects of LAB on Modulation of Rotavirus Vaccine Induced Immune Responses 263 Lijuan Yuan, Ke Wen, Fangning Liu and Guohua Li

  12 Bifidobacterium in Human GI Tract: Screening, 
Isolation, Survival and Growth Kinetics in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions 281 Nditange Shigwedha and Li Jia

  13 Lactic Fermentation and Bioactive Peptides 309 Anne Pihlanto

Section 5 Livestock Feed .


  14 Lactic Acid Bacteria in Tropical Grass Silages 335 
Edson Mauro Santos, Thiago Carvalho da Silva, Carlos Henrique Oliveira Macedo and Fleming Sena Campos

  15 Ruminal Digestibility and Quality of Silage 
Conserved via Fermentation by Lactobacilli 363 Yang Cao, Yimin Cai and Toshiyoshi Takahashi

Section 6 Fish & Seafood Products .


  16 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Bacteriocins: 
A Promising Approach to Seafood Biopreservation 381 Mahdi Ghanbari and Mansooreh Jami

  17 Selection of Lactobacillus Species from Intestinal Microbiota 
of Fish for Their Potential Use as Biopreservatives 405 Mahdi Ghanbari, Masoud Rezaei and Mansoureh Jami

Section 7 New Fields of Application .


  18 Exploring Surface Display Technology 
for Enhancement of Delivering Viable Lactic Acid Bacteria to Gastrointestinal Tract 427 Shirin Tarahomjoo

  19 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Mitigation 
of GHG Emission from Ruminant Livestock 455 Junichi Takahashi

  20 Lactose and β-Glucosides Metabolism and 
Its Regulation in Lactococcus lactis: A Review 467 Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk

  21 Lactic Acid Bacteria in Hydrogen-Producing Consortia: 
On Purpose or by Coincidence? 487 Anna Sikora, Mieczysław Błaszczyk, Marcin Jurkowski and Urszula Zielenkiewicz

  22 Exopolysaccharides of Lactic Acid Bacteria 
for Food and Colon Health Applications 515 Tsuda Harutoshi

  23 Dynamic Stresses of Lactic Acid Bacteria 
Associated to Fermentation Processes 539 Diana I. Serrazanetti, Davide Gottardi, Chiara Montanari and Andrea Gianotti

  24 Lactic Acid Bacteria in Philippine 
Traditional Fermented Foods 571 Charina Gracia B. Banaay, Marilen P. Balolong and Francisco B. Elegado

Chapter 25 Lactic Acid Bacteria as Source of Functional Ingredients 589 
Panagiota Florou-Paneri, Efterpi Christaki and Eleftherios Bonos

  26 The Current Status and Future Expectations in Industrial Production of Lactic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria 615 Sanna Taskila and Heikki Ojamo

  27 Application of Amylolytic Lactobacillus fermentum 04BBA19 in Fermentation for Simultaneous Production of Thermostable -Amylase and Lactic Acid 633 Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi and Frédéric Tavea .


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