Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Guy Huynh Thien Duc .
730 pages . 

The link of melanoma risk to ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is widely recognized, but 
UV radiation independent events account also for a significant number of cases which highlights 
the need for analysing further the mechanism(s) underlying melanomagenesis. Therefore,
the essential aspects to be considered would be related to the balance between Mc1R 
(melanocortin 1 receptor)-inherited background and the mutated BRAF (BRAF V600E) conveying 
stresses caused either by UV radiation or oxydative damage in the context of defined 
pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio.
Concerning the treatment of metastatic melanoma, overall results so far obtained still remained 
poor, although significant response rate has been observed with vemurafenib 
(PLX4032). However resistance to this remarkable small molecule is beginning to emerge 
and it is known that only patients with relevant mutation respond to this agent.
In this context, it is worth noting the development of new technologies, following the advent 
of human genome sequencing allowing to identify important somatic driver mutations that 
harness most aggressive cancer types. Progress gained in sequencing thousands of individual 
cancer genomes has already provided an invaluable insight into activating mutations and 
surrogate signalling pathways sustaining deregulated proliferation, invasiveness and resistance 
to apoptosis as well as to inhibitors. On the other hand, the throughout deep sequencing 
will also help development of other active inhibitors like PLX4032 specifically adapted 
for targeting defined activating mutations. Needless to say that personalized medicine 
based on patient’s genetic background represents also important aspect for taking in consideration.
Overall, the huge effort provided by scientists in many areas along with that of 
physicians recently will open, beyond doubt, the ways to development of appropriate and 
efficient strategies in the treatment of metastatic melanoma in particular and other cancer 
types in general.
As such, the book “Melanoma - From Early Detection to Treatment” assembles data and 
knowledge from most experienced experts in the field. It covers sections from fundamental 
aspects of the melanoma biology to various treatment approaches including melanoma related 
Acknowledgements: We thank Chaobin Zhu for his helpful assistance.

Guy Huynh Thien Duc
Research Director emeritus from the CNRS 
(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique),
INSERM, U-1014, Université Paris XI – Groupe hospitalier Paul-Brousse,
Villejuif, France


Section 1 Fundamental Aspects of the Melanoma Biology 1

Chapter 1 Overcoming Resistance to BRAF and MEK Inhibitors by 
Simultaneous Suppression of CDK4 3
Jianli Dong

Chapter 2 Targeted Therapies in Melanoma: Successes and Pitfalls 29
Giuseppe Palmieri, Maria Colombino, Maria Cristina Sini, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Amelia Lissia and Antonio Cossu

Chapter 3 Low-Penetrance Variants and Susceptibility to Sporadic Malignant Melanoma 59
G. Ribas, M. Ibarrola-Villava, M.C. Peña-Chilet, L.P. Fernandez and C. Martinez-Cadenas

Chapter 4 Melanoma Genetics: From Susceptibility to Progression 83
Guilherme Francisco, Priscila Daniele Ramos Cirilo, Fernanda Toledo Gonçalves, Tharcísio Citrângulo Tortelli Junior and Roger Chammas

Chapter 5 Diagnosis, Histopathologic and Genetic Classification of Uveal 
Melanoma 137
J.G.M. van Beek, A.E. Koopmans, R.M. Verdijk, N.C. Naus, A. de Klein and E. Kilic

Chapter 6 Recombinant DNA Technology in Emerging Modalities for 
Melanoma Immunotherapy 175
Vitali Alexeev, Alyson Pidich, Daria Marley Kemp and Olga Igoucheva

Chapter 7 Acquired Resistance to Targeted MAPK Inhibition in 
Melanoma 197
Kavitha Gowrishankar, Matteo S. Carlino and Helen Rizos

Chapter 8 Pars Plana Vitrectomy Associated with or Following Plaque 
Brachytherapy for Choroidal Melanoma 219
John O. Mason and Sara Mullins

Chapter 9 Combination Therapies to Improve Delivery of Protective T 
Cells into the Melanoma Microenvironment 231
Devin B. Lowe, Jennifer L. Taylor and Walter J. Storkus

Section 2 Melanoma Treatment Approaches 253

Chapter 10 Management of In-Transit Malignant Melanoma 255
Paul J. Speicher, Douglas S. Tyler and Paul J. Mosca

Chapter 11 Management of Brain Metastasis in Melanoma Patients 275
Sherif S. Morgan*, Joanne M. Jeter, Evan M. Hersh, Sun K. Yi and Lee D. Cranmer*

Chapter 12 Surgical Treatment of Nevi and Melanoma in the 
Pediatric Age 329
Andrea Zangari, Federico Zangari, Mercedes Romano, Elisabetta Cerigioni, Maria Giovanna Grella, Anna Chiara Contini and Martino Ascanio

Chapter 13 Adoptive Cell Therapy of Melanoma: The Challenges of 
Targeting the Beating Heart 365
Jennifer Makalowski and Hinrich Abken

Chapter 14 Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Methotrexate Resistance 
in Melanoma 391
Luis Sanchez del-Campo, Maria F. Montenegro, Magali Saez-Ayala, María Piedad Fernández-Pérez, Juan Cabezas-Herrera and Jose Neptuno Rodriguez-Lopez

Chapter 15 Surgery and the Staging of Melanoma 411
Z. Al-Hilli, D. Evoy, J.G. Geraghty, E.W. McDermott and R.S. Prichard

Chapter 16 Melanoma: Treatments and Resistance 439
Jonathan Castillo Arias and Miriam Galvonas Jasiulionis
Chapter 17 Management of Acral Lentiginous Melanoma 475
Yoshitaka Kai and Sakuhei Fujiwara

Chapter 18 Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma and Surgical 
Approach to Lymph Node Metastasis 499
Yasuhiro Nakamura and Fujio Otsuka

Chapter 19 Cutaneous Melanoma − Surgical Treatment 523 
Mario Santinami, Roberto Patuzzo, Roberta Ruggeri, Gianpiero Castelli, Andrea Maurichi, Giulia Baffa and Carlotta Tinti

Chapter 20 Therapeutic Agents for Advanced Melanoma 537
Zhao Wang, Wei Li and Duane D. Miller

Chapter 21 Update in Ocular Melanoma 565
Victoria de los Ángeles Bustuoabad, Lucia Speroni and Arturo Irarrázabal

Section 3 Melanoma Related Features 581

Chapter 22 The Menace of Melanoma: A Photodynamic Approach to 
Adjunctive Cancer Therapy 583
L.M. Davids and B. Kleemann

Chapter 23 Study of the Anti-Photoaging Effect of Noni (Morinda 
citrifolia) 629
Hideaki Matsuda, Megumi Masuda, Kazuya Murata, Yumi Abe and
Akemi Uwaya

Chapter 24 Inhibiting S100B in Malignant Melanoma 649
Kira G. Hartman, Paul T. Wilder, Kristen Varney, Alexander D. Jr. MacKerell, Andrew Coop, Danna Zimmer, Rena Lapidus and David J. Weber

Chapter 25 Immunomodulation 669
Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Dorothy A. Graves, Laura F. Hutchins and Thomas Kieber-Emmons .

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