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NEUROIMAGING – COGNITIVE AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE

NEUROIMAGING
Edited by Peter Bright .

The rate of technological progress is encouraging increasingly sophisticated lines of 
enquiry in cognitive neuroscience and shows no sign of slowing down in the 
foreseeable future. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that even the strongest advocates of the 
cognitive neuroscience approach would maintain that advances in cognitive theory 
have kept in step with methods-based developments. There are several candidate 
reasons for the failure of neuroimaging studies to convincingly resolve many of the 
most important theoretical debates in the literature. For example, a significant 
proportion of published functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are not 
well grounded in cognitive theory, and this represents a step away from the traditional 
approach in experimental psychology of methodically and systematically building on 
(or chipping away at) existing theoretical models using tried and tested methods.
Unless the experimental study design is set up within a clearly defined theoretical 
framework, any inferences that are drawn are unlikely to be accepted as anything 
other than speculative. A second, more fundamental issue is whether neuroimaging 
data alone can address how cognitive functions operate (far more interesting to the 
cognitive scientist than establishing the neuroanatomical coordinates of a given 
function – the where question).
The classic neuropsychological tradition of comparing neurologically impaired and 
healthy populations shares some of the same challenges associated with neuroimaging 
research (such as incorporation of individual differences in brain structure and 
function, attribution of specific vs general functions to a given brain region, and the 
questionable assumption that the shared components operating in two tasks under 
comparison recruit the same neural architecture. However, a further disadvantage of 
functional neuroimaging relative to the neuropsychological approach is that it is a 
correlational method for inferring regional brain involvement in a given task – and 
interpretation of signal should always reflect this fact. Spatial resolution and 
sensitivity is improving with the commercial availability of ultra-high field human 
scanners, but a single voxel (the smallest unit of measurement) still corresponds to 
many thousands of individual neurons. Haemodynamic response to input is slow (in 
the order of seconds) and the relationship between this function and neural activity 
remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, choice of image preprocessing 
parameters can appear somewhat arbitrary and an obvious rationale for selection of
statistical thresholds, correction for multiple corrections, etc. at the analysis stage can 
likewise be lacking in some studies. Therefore, to advance our knowledge about the 
neural bases of cognition, rigorous methodological control, well-developed theory 
with testable predictions, and inferences drawn on the basis of a range of methods is 
likely to be required. .....

Dr. Peter Bright
Anglia Ruskin University,
Cambridge,
UK

CONTENTS :

Chapter 1 Cytoarchitectonics of the Human Cerebral Cortex: The 1926 Presentation by Georg N. Koskinas (1885–1975) to the Athens Medical Society 1
Lazaros C. Triarhou

Chapter 2 Images of the Cognitive Brain Across Age and Culture 17
Joshua Goh and Chih-Mao Huang

Chapter 3 Neuroimaging of Single Cases: Benefits and Pitfalls 47
James Danckert and Seyed M. Mirsattarri

Chapter 4 Functional and Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Language: A Review 69
Manuel Martín-Loeches and Pilar Casado

Chapter 5 Neuro-Anatomical Overlap Between Language and Memory Functions in the Human Brain 95
Satoru Yokoyama

Chapter 6 Neuronal Networks Observed with Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Clinical Populations 109
Gioacchino Tedeschi and Fabrizio Esposito

Chapter 7 Resting State Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Psychiatric Disorders 129
Nobuhisa Kanahara, Eiji Shimizu, Yoshimoto Sekine and Masaomi Iyo

Chapter 8 The Memory, Cognitive and Psychological Functions of Sleep: Update from Electroencephalographic and Neuroimaging Studies 155
Roumen Kirov and Serge Brand

Chapter 9 Neuroimaging and Outcome Assessment in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious State.Silvia Marino, Rosella Ciurleo, Annalisa Baglieri, Francesco Corallo, Rosaria De Luca, Simona De Salvo, Silvia Guerrera, Francesca Timpano, Placido Bramanti and Nicola De Stefano

Chapter 10 Functional and Structural MRI Studies on Impulsiveness: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorders 205
Trevor Archer and Peter Bright

Chapter 11 MRI Techniques to Evaluate Exercise Impact on the Aging Human Brain 229
Bonita L. Marks and Laurence M. Katz

Chapter 12 Human Oscillatory EEG Activities Representing Working Memory Capacity 249
Masahiro Kawasaki

Chapter 13 Neuroimaging Data in Bipolar Disorder: An Updated View 263
Bernardo Dell’Osso, Cristina Dobrea, Maria Carlotta Palazzo, Laura Cremaschi, Chiara Arici, Beatrice Benatti and A. Carlo Altamura

Chapter 14 Reinforcement Learning, High-Level Cognition, and the Human Brain 283
Massimo Silvetti and Tom Verguts

Chapter 15 What Does Cerebral Oxygenation Tell Us About Central Motor Output? 297
Nicolas Bourdillon and Stéphane Perrey

Chapter 16 Intermanual and Intermodal Transfer in Human Newborns: Neonatal Behavioral Evidence and Neurocognitive Approach 319
Arlette Streri and Edouard Gentaz

Chapter 17 Somatosensory Stimulation in Functional Neuroimaging: A Review 333
S.M. Golaszewski, M. Seidl, M. Christova, E. Gallasch, A.B. Kunz, R. Nardone, E. Trinka and F. Gerstenbrand

Chapter 18 Neuroimaging Studies in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication 353
Ya-Ting Chang, Wen-Neng Chang, Shu-Hua Huang, Chun-Chung Lui, Chen-Chang Lee,
Nai-Ching Chen and Chiung-Chih Chang

Chapter 19 Graphical Models of Functional MRI Data for Assessing Brain Connectivity 375Junning Li, Z. JaneWang and Martin J. McKeown

Chapter 20 Event-Related Potential Studies of Cognitive and Social Neuroscience 397
Agustin Ibanez, Phil Baker and Alvaro Moya

Chapter 21 Neuroimaging Outcomes of Brain Training Trials 417
Chao Suo and Michael J. Valenzuela

Chapter 22 EEG-Biofeedback as a Tool to Modulate Arousal: Trends and Perspectives for Treatment of ADHD and Insomnia 431
B. Alexander Diaz, Lizeth H. Sloot, Huibert D. Mansvelder and Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen

Chapter 23 Deconstructing Central Pain with Psychophysical and Neuroimaging Studies 451
J.J. Cheng, D.S. Veldhuijzen, J.D. Greenspan and F.A. Lenz


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