Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Sivakumar Gowder .

In this book, the section on Toxicity reveals the emerging technologies (profiling technologies, 
3D cultures etc.) to evaluate hepatotoxicity of candidate drugs; suitability of kidney 
Vero cell line in evaluating toxicity of microcystins; suitability of aquatic larva to evaluate 
environmental toxicants and advanced level techniques (next generation sequencing etc.) to 
screen the safety of medicinal plants. Chapters in the section on Drug testing and Development 
reveal reductionist approach of using animal models in drug development, especially 
in toxicity testing; the role of renal transporters in the safety assessment of drugs; role of autophagy 
in Parkinson’s diseases and the clinical importance of Methadone Maintenance 
Therapy. In this section, there are also interesting discussions on the emerging role of physiologically 
based pharmacokinetic modeling in the pharmaceutical industry throughout the 
drug development. This book is a significant resource for scientists and physicians who are 
directly dealing with drugs / medicines and human life. It is my privilege to present this 
book to the scientific community.
I extend my gratitude towards my mother, my late father and my brothers for introducing 
me to higher education. My thanks to higher authorities, and colleagues of Qassim University 
for their motivation to carry out this project. I am continuously indebted to my wife 
Anitha for her encouragement and technical support for this book project. I also acknowledge 
the interest and commitment from the Senior Commissioning Editor of InTech Ms Ana 
Pantar and the Publishing Process Manager Ms Sandra Bakic whose patience and focus 
were of immense support in this project. Finally, I express deep and sincere gratitude to all 
the authors for their valuable contributions and scholarly cooperation for timely completion 
of this book.

Dr Sivakumar Joghi Thatha Gowder
Qassim University – College of Pharmacy
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Section 1 Toxicity 1

Chapter 1 Pre-Clinical Assessment of the Potential Intrinsic 
Hepatotoxicity of Candidate Drugs 3
Jacob John van Tonder, Vanessa Steenkamp and Mary Gulumian

Chapter 2 The Kidney Vero-E6 Cell Line: A Suitable Model to Study the 
Toxicity of Microcystins 29
Carina Menezes, Elisabete Valério and Elsa Dias

Chapter 3 Why are Early Life Stages of Aquatic Organisms more Sensitive to Toxicants than Adults? 49
Azad Mohammed

Chapter 4 Screening of Herbal Medicines for Potential Toxicities 63
Obidike Ifeoma and Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Chapter 5 New Trends in Genotoxicity Testing of Herbal Medicinal Plants 89
Hala M. Abdelmigid

Section 2 Drug Testing and Development 121

Chapter 6 Animal Models in Drug Development 123
Ray Greek

Chapter 7 Renal Transporters and Biomarkers in Safety Assessment 153
P.D. Ward, D. La and J.E. McDuffie

Chapter 8 Autophagy: A Possible Defense Mechanism in Parkinson's
Disease? 177
Rosa A. González-Polo, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Lydia Sánchez- Erviti, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Elisa Pizarro-Estrella, Mireia Niso- Santano and José M. Fuentes

Chapter 9 Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: A Tool for 
Understanding ADMET Properties and Extrapolating to Human 197
Micaela B. Reddy, Harvey J. Clewell III, Thierry Lave and Melvin E. Andersen

Chapter 10 Plasma Methadone Level Monitoring in Methadone 
Maintenance Therapy: A Personalised Methadone Therapy 219
Nasir Mohamad, Roslanuddin Mohd Salehuddin, Basyirah Ghazali, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Nurfadhlina Musa, Muslih Abdulkarim Ibrahim, Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan, Ahmad Rashidi and Rusli Ismail .

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Published by: Unknown - Monday, January 28, 2013


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