Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Bin Wu .
260 pages . 

Embryo transfer technology has become one of the prominent high businesses 
worldwide in human and animal reproduction. As human in vitro fertilization (IVF) 
technique rapidly develops in infertility treatment, not only animal IVF has offered a 
very valuable tool to study mammalian fertilization and early embryo development as 
treatment, but also its commercial applications have being increased quickly. So far, 
this technology has gone through three major changes, that is, (1) traditional embryo 
transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation) in animals, especially in 
cow, (2) in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization (OPUIVF) 
in human and animals and (3) notably current cloning technique by somatic cell 
nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo transfer technology has 
widely been used in animal industry to improve animal breeds. In human, many IVF 
clinic centers have been set up for infertility couple treatment over the whole world.
As embryo transfer techniques have accumulated over long period, many kinds of 
books about embryo transfer on human and various animals have been published.
Most of books have described embryo transfer procedures and manipulation 
protocols. The purpose of this book does not concentrate on the detail description of 
basic embryo transfer techniques and procedures, while we will update and review 
some new developed theories and technologies and focus on discussing some 
encountered problems during embryo transfer and give some examples how to 
improve pregnancy rate by innovated techniques so that readers, especially
embryologists and physicians for human IVF programs, may acquire some new and 
usable information as well as some key practice techniques.
This book contains four parts with 16 chapters. Firstly, an optimal stimulation scheme 
for ovaries, particularly natural and minimal stimulation of ovaries, has been 
discussed in the first part. Then, one paper analyzed that how many oocytes per 
retrieval will be the best for human IVF practice. If one stimulation scheme produces 
too many eggs, it often results in hyperstimulation syndrome. Thus, a chapter 
reviewed hyperstimulation syndrome diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In the 
second part, some advanced technologies in insemination have been listed. After 
introduction of normal sperm physiology, sperm meiotic chromosome abnormalities 
and DNA fragmentation infertile patients are analyzed. Then, newly developed 
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) techniques, such as intracytoplasmic 
morphologically‐selected sperm injection (IMSI) and selection of hyaluronan bound 
sperm for use in ICSI (PICSI), have been reviewed. Finally, we introduced some new 
techniques and methods which can make azoospermic men realize their dream to have 
children. In the third part, it will mainly discuss how to increase pregnancy rate by
improving embryo transfer procedures including optimal embryo transfer skills, 
blastocyst selection and single embryo transfer, and the relationship of intercourse and 
pregnancy success rate. In the last part, endometrial receptivity and embryo 
implantation are discussed, interestingly, more than 20 biomarkers have been found in 
uterus to determine embryo implantation window and pregnancy failure. Thus, this 
book will greatly add some new information for embryologists and IVF physicians to 
improve human IVF pregnancy rate.
Great thanks go to all authors who gladly contributed their time and expertise to 
prepare these outstanding chapters included in this book.

Bin Wu, Ph.D., HCLD (ABB)
Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
Tucson, Arizona


Part 1 Introductory Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Advances in Embryo Transfer 3
Bin Wu

Part 2 Optimal Stimulation for Ovaries 19

Chapter 2 Minimal and Natural Stimulations for IVF 21
Jerome H. Check

Chapter 3 Does the Number of Retrieved Oocytes Influence Pregnancy 
Rate After Day 3 and Day 5 Embryo Transfer? 39
Veljko Vlaisavljević, Jure Knez and Borut Kovačič

Chapter 4 Prevention and Treatment of Ovarian 
Hyperstimulation Syndrome 53
Ivan Grbavac, Dejan Ljiljak and Krunoslav Kuna

Part 3 Advances in Insemination Technology 63

Chapter 5 Sperm Cell in ART 65
Dejan Ljiljak, Tamara Tramišak Milaković, Neda Smiljan Severinski, Krunoslav Kuna and Anđelka Radojčić Badovinac

Chapter 6 Meiotic Chromosome Abnormalities and Spermatic 
FISH in Infertile Patients with Normal Karyotype 73
Simón Marina, Susana Egozcue, David Marina, Ruth Alcolea and Fernando Marina

Chapter 7 New Advances in Intracytoplasmic 
Sperm Injection (ICSI) 99
Lodovico Parmegiani, Graciela Estela Cognigni and Marco Filicori

Chapter 8 Advances in Fertility Options of Azoospermic Men 115
Bin Wu, Timothy J. Gelety and Juanzi Shi

Part 4 Embryo Transfer Technology 133

Chapter 9 Increasing Pregnancy by Improving 
Embryo Transfer Techniques 135
Tahereh Madani and Nadia Jahangiri

Chapter 10 Optimizing Embryo Transfer Outcomes: Determinants for 
Improved Outcomes Using the Oocyte Donation Model 149
Alan M. Martinez and Steven R. Lindheim

Chapter 11 Importance of Blastocyst Morphology 
in Selection for Transfer 161
Borut Kovačič and Veljko Vlaisavljević

Chapter 12 Pregnancy Rates Following Transfer of Cultured Versus 
Non Cultured Frozen Thawed Human Embryos 177
Bharat Joshi, Manish Banker, Pravin Patel, Preeti Shah and Deven Patel

Chapter 13 Intercourse and ART Success Rates 185
Abbas Aflatoonian, Sedigheh Ghandi and Nasim Tabibnejad

Part 5 Embryo Implantation and Cryopreservation 191

Chapter 14 Implantation of the Human Embryo 193
Russell A. Foulk

Chapter 15 Biomarkers Related to Endometrial 
Receptivity and Implantation 207
Mark P. Trolice1 and George Amyradakis

Chapter 16 Fertility Cryopreservation 225
Francesca Ciani, Natascia Cocchia, Luigi Esposito and Luigi Avallone .

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Published by: Unknown - Tuesday, January 29, 2013


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