Open Access Medical Books

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

Edited by Varaprasad Bobbarala .

432 pages .
Open Access .

Man is in constant contact with a large number of different bacteria which temporarily or permanently inhibit his body creating temporary or permanent community. Relations which are thus established are various and very complex, from those positive to those whose consequences for man are extremely negative. Very often, both on and in man’s body, bacteria which have the ability to cause an infection are present. This ability of pathogenic bacteria is reflected in possession of certain pathogenicity factors. A set of factors which
enable successful invasion and damage of the host are: toxins, surface structures and enzymes. Between the host and the pathogen very complex relations are established whose income depends on host’s characteristics as well as on pathogen’s characteristics.
Infections caused by bacteria can be prevented, managed and treated through anti-bacterial group of compounds known as antibiotics. Antibiotics are natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. When bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic, they doubly respond: i) they are sensitive what cause the inhibition of their growth, division and death or ii) they can remain unaffected or resistant.
The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics can be natural (intrinsic) or acquired. Natural resistance is achieved by spontaneous gene mutation. The acquired resistence occurs after the contact of bacteria with an antibiotic as a result of adaptation of a species to adverse environmental conditions. In such population, an antibiotic as a selective agent, acts on sensitive individuals, while resistant survive and become dominant. Bacteria gain antibiotic resistance due to three reasons namely: (i) modification of active site of the target resulting in reduction in the efficiency of binding of the drug, (ii) direct destruction or modification of the antibiotic by enzymes produced by the organism or, (iii) efflux of antibiotic from the cell (Sheldon, 2005). The evolution of antibacterial resistance in human pathogenic and commensal microorganisms is the result of the interaction between antibiotic exposure and the transmission of resistance within and between individuals. It is especially interesting the phenomenon of horizontally gene transfer. Extrachromosomal DNA material, so-called plasmids, often carry genes of resistance and can transfer information within and between the individuals of the same or related bacterial species, thus also spreading the resistance.
Transformation, transduction and conjugation represent the horizontal gene transfer mechanisms of resistance between the bacteria.
Having in mind the current progress of resistance spreading and resilience of larger and larger number of bacteria to traditional antibiotics as well as a way of transmitting the gene of resistance, above all via plasmids, one can conclude that the ability of obtaining bacterium resistance to antibiotics represents a very dynamic and unpredictable phenomenon. For that reason, bacterial resistance to antibiotics represents a major health problem. Solving this problem and search for new sources of antimicrobial agents is a worldwide challenge and the aim of many researches of scientific and research teams in science, academy institutions, pharmaceutical companies. One of the approaches in solving this issue is testing the biologically active compounds of plant origin......

Dr . Varaprasad Bobbarala .
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CONTENTS  :


Chapter 1 Antibacterial Activity of Naturally 
Occurring Compounds from Selected Plants 3
Olgica Stefanović, Ivana Radojević, Sava Vasić and Ljiljana Čomić


Chapter 2 Future Antibiotic Agents: Turning to Nature for Inspiration 25
Nataša Radić and Tomaž Bratkovič

Chapter 3 Natural Antimicrobial 
Peptides from Eukaryotic Organisms 51
Renaud Condé, Martha Argüello, Javier Izquierdo, Raúl Noguez, Miguel Moreno and Humberto Lanz

Chapter 4 The Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae to Naturally
Derived Selected Classes of Flavonoids 73
Johannes Bodenstein and Karen Du Toit

Chapter 5 Antibacterial Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas, 
Ureas and Thioureas of 15-Membered Azalides 85
Mirjana Bukvić Krajačić and Miljenko Dumić

Chapter 6 Antimicrobial Activity of Condiments 109
André Silvério and Maria Lopes

Chapter 7 An Alternative Approaches for the 
Control of Sorghum Pathogens Using Selected Medicinal Plants Extracts 129
Varaprasad Bobbarala and Chandrasekhar K. Naidu

Chapter 8 Antimicrobial Activity of Lectins from Plants 145
Aphichart Karnchanatat

Chapter 9 The Natural Antimicrobial Chromogranins/Secretogranins- 
Derived Peptides – Production, Lytic Activity and Processing by Bacterial Proteases 179
Ménonvè Atindehou, Rizwan Aslam, Jean-François Chich, Youssef Haïkel, Francis Schneider and Marie-Hélène Metz-Boutigue

Chapter 10 Mechanisms Determining Bacterial 
Biofilm Resistance to Antimicrobial Factors 213
Kamila Myszka and Katarzyna Czaczyk

Chapter 11 Antimicrobial Activity of 
Endophytes from Brazilian Medicinal Plants 239
Chirlei Glienke, Fabiana Tonial, Josiane Gomes-Figueiredo, Daiani Savi, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Beatriz H. L. N. Sales Maia and Yvelise Maria Possiede

Chapter 12 Quinolones: Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity 255
Pintilie Lucia

Chapter 13 Superbugs: Current Trends and Emerging Therapies 273
Amy L. Stockert and Tarek M. Mahfouz

Chapter 14 The Prophylactic Use of 
Acidifiers as Antibacterial Agents in Swine 295
V. G. Papatsiros and C. Billinis

Chapter 15 From Synthesis to Antibacterial Activity of Some 
New Palladium(II) and Platinum(IV) Complexes 311
Ivana D. Radojević, Verica V. Glođović, Gordana P. Radić, Jelena M. Vujić, Olgica D. Stefanović, Ljiljana R. Čomić and Srećko R. Trifunović

Chapter 16 Antibacterial Agents in Dental Treatments 333
Saeed Rahimi, Amin Salem Milani, Negin Ghasemi and Shahriar Shahi

Chapter 17 Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) Wall. ex Ness: 
A Potent Antibacterial Plant 345
Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Othman Abd. Samah and Abubakar Sule

Chapter 18 Antibacterial Agents from Lignicolous Macrofungi 361
Maja Karaman, Milan Matavulj and Ljiljana Janjic

Chapter 19 Antibacterial Agents in Textile Industry 387
Sheila Shahidi and Jakub Wiener

Chapter 20 Silver Nanoparticles: Real Antibacterial Bullets 407
G. Thirumurugan and M. D. Dhanaraju .


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Published by: younes younes - Tuesday, January 29, 2013

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