Open Access Medical Books

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Edited by Monika Göőz .

Chronic kidney disease is an increasing health and economical problem in our world. 
Obesity and diabetes mellitus, the two most common cause of CKD, are becoming 
epidemic in our societies. Education on healthy lifestyle and diet is becoming more 
and more important for reducing the number of type 2 diabetics and patients with 
hypertension. Education of our patients is also crucial for successful maintenance 
therapy. There are, however, certain other factors leading to CKD, for instance the 
genetic predisposition in the case of polycystic kidney disease or type 1 diabetes, 
where education alone is not enough.
When the first angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril, was developed in 
1975 it changed not only the treatment of hypertension, but of diabetic nephropathy 
and other chronic kidney diseases. In the past forty years we did not have such a 
breakthrough in the treatment of CKD. However, several valuable discoveries were 
made which greatly enhanced our understanding of the role of nitric oxide and 
mechanisms responsible for anemia and CKD-related bone diseases. Most certainly, 
dialysis techniques have developed greatly over the past seventy years and have 
become available for a wide range of people. Furthermore, advanced surgical 
procedures and tools were developed in the past years to resolve ureteral obstructions 
originating from stones or prostate hypertrophy. These modern techniques are 
discussed in our book along with currently accepted procedures for kidney cancers.
How can we further improve the treatment of CKD patients? Besides prevention, the 
most important aim would be to constantly look for, and try to understand the 
mechanistic details of disease development and progression. Perhaps no other disease 
is as complex and complicated as CKD since the symptoms result from the constant 
interaction of multiple organ systems as is the case with cardiorenal syndrome, CKDrelated 
anemia, and bone diseases. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the 
disease, we need continuous communication between nephrologists, surgeons, and 
basic scientists, since only our joint approach can lay down the foundation of the next 
(bio)medical breakthrough. The chapters of our book introduce readers to this
enthusiastic approach.
I would like to thank all of our contributors for their valuable time and expertise and 
for the high quality chapters which provide a greatly enjoyable reading experience. I 
also would like to thank my family and friends who supported me during the editing 
process: my Mom and Dad, Pal and Adam, and Carol of course. I dedicate this book to 
you.

Monika Göőz, MD PhD
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, SC,
USA

CONTENTS :

Chapter 1 ADAM Proteases as Novel Therapeutic Targets 
in Chronic Kidney Disease 3
Monika Göőz

Chapter 2 Severity and Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease 13
Syed Ahmed and Gerard Lowder

Chapter 3 The New Kidney and Bone Disease: Chronic Kidney Disease – Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD–MBD) 25
Igor G. Nikolov, Ognen Ivanovski and Nobuhiko Joki

Chapter 4 The Prevalence of Renal Osteodystrophy in Chronic Renal Failure Patients in Urban Niger Delta of Nigeria 47
U. R. Onyemekeihia, C. O. Esume, E. Unuigbe, E. Oviasu, L. Ojogwu

Chapter 5 Relationships Among Renal Function, Bone Turnover and Periodontal Disease 73
Akihiro Yoshihara and Lisdrianto Hanindriyo

Chapter 6 Sarcoidosis and Kidney Disease 87
Tulsi Mehta, Anirban Ganguli and Mehrnaz Haji-Momenian

Chapter 7 Origins of Cardiorenal Syndrome and the Cardiorenal Connection 107
L. G. Bongartz, M. J. Cramer and J. A. Joles

Chapter 8 Sub-Types and Therapeutic Management of the Cardiorenal Syndrome 123
Margot Davis and Sean A. Virani

Chapter 9 Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease 149
Gen-Min Lin, Chih-Lu Han, Chung-Chi Yang and Cheng-Chung Cheng

Chapter 10 Pharmacologic Adjuvants to Reduce Erythropoietin Therapy Dose in Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease and End Stage Renal Disease 161
Adeel Siddiqui, Aqeel Siddiqui and Robert Benz

Chapter 11 Molecular Mechanisms of Nephro-Protective Action of HE-86 Liquid
Extract in Experimental Chronic Renal Failure 175
Li-qun He, Dong Feixia, Qiang Fu and Jun Li

Chapter 12 The Effects of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Homocysteine (Hcy) on Progression of Mild Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Relationship Between Clinical and Biochemical Parameters 197
A. Atamer, S. Alisir Ecder, Y. Atamer, Y. Kocyigit, N. Bozkurt Yigit and T. Ecder

Chapter 13 Neutrophil Activation and Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Composition in Stage 5
Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 209
Elísio Costa, Luís Belo and Alice Santos-Silva

Chapter 14 Assessing Iron Status in CKD Patients: New Laboratory Parameters 225
Eloísa Urrechaga, Luís Borque and Jesús F. Escanero

Chapter 15 Exogenous Fluorescent Agents for the Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate .
Raghavan Rajagopalan and Richard B. Dorshow

Chapter 16 Modern Surgical Treatments of Urinary Tract Obstruction 261
Bannakij Lojanapiwat

Chapter 17 Extra-Anatomic Urinary Drainage for Urinary Obstruction 281
Michael Kimuli, John Sciberras and Stuart Lloyd

Chapter 18 Percutaneous Nephrostomy 297
Rameysh D. Mahmood, Lee Yizhi and Mark Tan M.L.

Chapter 19 Unusual Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Therapies 315
Cesar A. Restrepo V

Chapter 20 The Role of Nephron-Sparing Surgery (NSS) for Renal Tumours >4 cm 329
Amélie Parisel, Frederic Baekelandt, Hein Van Poppel and Steven Joniau

Chapter 21 Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Chronic Kidney Disease 347Ricardo Leão, Bruno Jorge Pereira and Hugo Coelho

Chapter 22 Asymptomatic Bacteriuria (ASB), Renal Function and Hypertension 377
Suzanne Geerlings

Chapter 23 Sleep Disorders Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease 385
Robert L. Benz, Mark R. Pressman and Iqbal Masood

Chapter 24 The Allo-Immunological Injury in Chronic Allograft Nephropathy 401
I. Enver Khan, Rubin Zhang, Eric E. Simon and L. Lee Hamm

Chapter 25 Prevention and Regression of Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension 415
Hiroyuki Sasamura

Chapter 26 Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Renal Predialysis Patients Exposed to a Prevention Program – Medellín, 2007-2008 431
Carlos E. Yepes Delgado, Yanett M. Montoya Jaramillo, Beatriz E. Orrego Orozco and Daniel C. Aguirre Acevedo



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