Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Gyula Mózsik .

260 pages .
Open Access .
ISBN 978-953-51-0907-5 .

Homeostasis of living organisms is extremelly well regulated by various physiological, hormonal,  nutritional, immunological, genetic etc. pathways. We have learnt a lot about these  mechanisms during last decades, however, some details remaine to be unknown.
The gastric mucosa's function is regulated by many intrinsic (neural, hormonal, immunological,  genetic etc. regulations) and extrinsic (different foods or food components, xenobiotics,  chemical agents, physical actions) factors, that directly reach the gastric mucosa in both  healthy subjects and in patients with gastrointestinal or other diseases.
The gastric mucosa is able to reply to these endogenonous and exogenous actions by active  and passive (dominantly metabolic) pathways. Many experimental works and clinical observations  clearly indicate that the macroscopic (and in somewhat microscopic) features of the  gastric mucosa to different endogenous and exogenous aggresive agents are very similar.
The inflammation, as the general reaction, of gastric mucosa seems to be the same. The role of inflammation in the development of different diseases was suggested by Hyppocrates  (B.C. 460-377), who stated that the changes in the blood flow and other body fluids  are caused by local irritations of organs („ubi stimulus, idi fluxus”). The appearence of classical  inflammation were given by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ( B.C. 25- A.C. 50 ) as „tumor,calor,  dolor, rubor” and Claudius Galenos (A.C. 129-200/201) gave the last basic parameter of  the inflammation as „functio laesa” to the previously mentinoned characteristic medical  phenomena.These terminological questions were accepted by Wirchow in the 19th centrury,  and many other famous researchers in our days.
Gastritis, as the inflammatory process (or processes), in the gastric mucosa is (are) a pathomorphological  appearance(s) of inflammation in the gastric mucosa. Acute and chronic gastritis  can be differentiated on the basis of the development and process of the diseases.
Chronic gastritis may be caused by different factors such as many chemical, bacterial, viral,  physical agents, and one of these is Helicobacter pylori infection, bacterial owergrowth in a  hypochlrohydric stomach, autoimmune mechanisms, or chemical agents such as long-term  nonsteroidal antinflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment and bile reflux.
Nowadays, the importance of Helicobacter pylori infection is increasing . Many of references  in the literature used to emphasize the presence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with  chronic atrophic gastritis with and without the development of gastric cancer.
This bacterium is highly prevalent in many countries and increases the risk for development  of gastric and duodenal ulcer diseases, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid  tissue lymphoma.
So the gastritis (as a pathomorphological event) does not represent a clinically uniform entity  (as it can be clearly suggested from the difinition of inflammation). Of course, many  mechanisms are involved in the development of chronic gastritis, produced by different intrinsic  and extrinsic factors (including also the genetic backgrounds). .....

Dr Gyula Mózsik
Professor of Medicine
First Depatment of Medicine,
Medical and Health Centre,
University of Pécs,
Pécs, Hungary


Section 1 History of Gastritis: From Morphology to Etiology and Prognosis .

  1 Diagnosis of Gastritis – Review from Early Pathological 
Evaluation to Present Day Management 3 Imre Laszlo Szabo, Kata Cseko, Jozsef Czimmer and Gyula Mozsik

Section 2 Animal Models for Study the Mechanisms of Gastritis.

  2 The Role of Helicobacter spp. Infection in
Domestic Animals 23 Achariya Sailasuta and Worapat Prachasilchai

Section 3 Epidemiology of Gastritis .

  3 Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Its Relevant to Chronic 
Gastritis 39 Mohamed M. Elseweidy

Section 4 Afferent Vagal Neural Pathway in the Development and Healing of Chronic Gastritis in Patients .

  4 Capsaicin-Sensitive Afferentation Represents a New Mucosal 
Defensive Neural Pathway System in the Gastric Mucosa in Patients with Chronic Gastritis 61 Jozsef Czimmer, Imre Laszló Szabo, Janos Szolcsanyi and Gyula Mozsik

Section 5 Diagnostic Backgrounds .

  5 The Genetic and Epigenetic Bases of Gastritis 79 
Alejandro H. Corvalan, Gonzalo Carrasco and Kathleen Saavedra

  6 Intestinal Metaplasia Related to Gastric Cancer: An Outcome 
Analysis of Biomarkers for Early Detection 97 Jiro Watari, Kentaro Moriichi, Hiroki Tanabe, Mikihiro Fujiya, Hiroto Miwa, Yutaka Kohgo and Kiron M. Das

  7 Unveiling the Intricacies of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation: T Helper Cells and Matrix Metalloproteinases at a Crossroad 113 Avisek Banerjee**, Asish K. Mukhopadhyay**, Sumit Paul, Arindam Bhattacharyya and Snehasikta Swarnakar

  8 Accumulation of DNA Methylation Changes in the Progression 
of Gastritis to Gastric Cancer 153 Zheming Lu and Dajun Deng

  9 Does Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Decreases the 
Expression of p53 and c-Myc oncogenes in the Human Gastric Mucosa? 171 Hanan AlSaeid Alshenawy and Amr Mahrous Alshafey

  10 Gastric Cancer Risk Diagnosis Using Molecular Biological and 
Serological Markers Based on Helicobacter pylori-Related Chronic Gastritis 183 Shotaro Enomoto, Takao Maekita, Kazuyuki Nakazawa, Takeichi Yoshida, Mika Watanabe, Chizu Mukoubayashi, Hiroshi Ohata, Mikitaka Iguchi, Kimihiko Yanaoka, Hideyuki Tamai, Jun Kato, Masashi Oka, Osamu Mohara and Masao Ichinose

Section 6 Molecular Phathology, Biochemistry and Genetics in Pathways from H. Pylori Infection to Gastric Cancer .

  11 The Role of CagA Protein Signaling in Gastric Carcinogenesis — 
CagA Signaling in Gastric Carcinogenesis 203 Stephanie E. Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Mucito-Varela, Germán Rubén Aguilar-Gutiérrez, Yolanda Lopez-Vidal and Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

  12 From Gastritis to Gastric Cancer: The Importance of CagPAI of Helicobacter Pylori on the Development of Early and Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma 223 Bruna Maria Roesler and José Murilo Robilotta Zeitune

  13 Gastric Cancer: Molecular Pathology State 241 
Filomena Altieri, Paolo Arcari and Emilia Rippa .

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