Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Krassimir Metodiev .

The theme of the Book “Immunodeficiency” is to emphasize the need to understand 
the basic immunologic, biologic, biochemical, metabolic, microbiologic, viral and 
clinical pathways which serve as the basis for the identification procedures used to 
investigate the major topic: the immune system, its alterations and clinical impact on 
humans and animals.
The authors perform a thorough analysis and updated approaches to reveal the 
immunodeficiency in various directions, thus helping the readers to deepen their
knowledge on its practical issues.
Because of limitations of space, not all areas in clinical and experimental immunology, 
associated to the discussed problem, could be included in this Book. 
Immunology, in particular immunopathology and immunodeficiency, is a subject too 
broad to introduce as a full picture here. However, the selected chapters and sections of 
the Book allow the specialized audience to find a logical, step-by-step approach to the 
recovery and medically important conclusions and definitions of different 
immunodeficiency states, which is the hallmark of this text. Experimental, laboratory 
and clinical correlations and discussions of the results have been expanded, both because 
we believe all interested readers, students, interns, post-docs, residents, specialists, 
advanced researchers in all corresponding specialities, even other than those directly 
involved, can profit from the use of this Book and because biomedical technologists have 
expressed much interest in knowing more about the disease processes caused by the 
pathologic alterations of the immune system, specifically the immunodeficiency.
We wish to acknowledge all authors who provided their scientific and practical 
achievements for the benefit of the modern immunopathology.

Prof. Dr. Krassimir Metodiev
MD, PhD, DScmed, President of IMAB,
Secretary General of FESCI, Head of the Department of Immunology,
Medical University, Varna,


Section 1 Immunodeficiency – Immunotherapy .

Chapter 1 Stem Cell Transplantation for Primary Immunodeficiency 3
Mary A. Slatter and Andrew R. Gennery

Chapter 2 “Wrapped Up” Vaccines in 
the Context of HIV-1 Immunotherapy 27
Winni De Haes, Charlotte Pollard, Guido Vanham and Joanna Rejman

Chapter 3 Is Anticancer Vaccine Possible: 
Experimental Application of Produced mRNA Transfected Dendritic Cells Derived from Enriched CD34+ Blood Progenitor Cells 77
Paula Lazarova, Gunnar Kvalheim and Krassimir Metodiev

Chapter 4 Immunoglobulin Treatment of Immunodeficient Patients 89
Yıldız Camcıoğlu

Section 2 Immunodeficiency – Mechanisms and Pathophysiology .

Chapter 5 Chemokine Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in HIV Infection 115
Cleo G. Anastassopoulou

Chapter 6 Fungal Infections in Immunosuppressed Patients 149
Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla

Chapter 7 Pattern of Clinical Presentations in Immunocompromised Patient 177
Umezurike Hughes Okafor

Chapter 8 Selective Antibody Deficiency 
with Normal Immunoglobulins 191
Ricardo U. Sorensen, Tammy Harvey and Lily E. Leiva

Chapter 9 Emerging Role of MicroRNAs in 
the Pathophysiology of Immune System 207
Marco Rossi, Pierosandro Tagliaferri and Pierfrancesco Tassone

Section 3 Immunodeficiency – HIV, Human Model .

Chapter 10 HIV-Infected Patients and Potential Impact on Thrombotic Events 221
Hortensia Álvarez Díaz, Ana Mariño Callejo and José Francisco García Rodríguez

Chapter 11 Coreceptor Usage in HIV Infection 235
Kerina Duri

Chapter 12 The Role of Liver Transplantation 
in HIV Positive Patients 259
Deepak Joshi and Kosh Agarwal

Chapter 13 What I Knew was What I Learnt on the Street! 
Irish Drug Using Sex Workers Accounts of How They Contracted HIV and Hepatitis C 275
Teresa Whitaker, Paul Ryan and Gemma Cox

Chapter 14 Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 295
Moosa Patel

Section 4 Immunodeficiency – HIV, Feline Model .

Chapter 15 Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Their Impact on Non-Human Primate Models for AIDS 311
Lara E. Pereira, Priya Srinivasan and James M. Smith

Chapter 16 Feline Immunodeficiency 357
Fabiana Alves and Jenner Karlisson Pimenta dos Reis

Chapter 17 Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Infection in Cats: A Possible Cause of Renal Pathological Changes 375
Natasa Tozon, Mauro Pistello and Alessandro Poli

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