Open Access Medical Books

IRON METABOLISM

IRON METABOLISM

Edited by Sarika Arora .

Open Access .


Iron is the most abundant element on earth representing nearly 90% of the mass in the  earth’s core, yet only trace elements are present in living cells. Most of the iron in the body is located within the porphyrin ring of heme, which is incorporated into proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases and peroxidases. Although iron appears in a variety of oxidation states, in particular as hexavalent ferrate, the ferrous and ferric forms are of most importance. The transition from ferrous to ferric iron and vice versa occurs readily, meaning that Fe(II) acts as a reducing agent and Fe(III) as an oxidant. Iron is closely involved with the metabolism of oxygen in a variety of biochemical processes. Iron, as either heme or in its “nonheme” form, plays an important role in cell growth and metabolism because of its involvement in key reactions of DNA synthesis and energy production.
However, low solubility of iron in body fluids and the ability to form toxic hydroxyl radicals in presence of oxygen make iron uptake, use and storage a serious challenge.
Iron metabolism in complex organisms involves two levels of regulation. The lower level is cellular and comprises the mechanisms of cellular uptake and storage as well as the intracellular use of iron in enzymes. In this regard, two principles effectively control iron uptake, the use of cell surface receptors for iron-containing proteins or direct iron import by metal transporters. This aspect has been studied in detail during the last three decades with a special focus on the mechanisms and regulation of receptor-mediated cellular iron uptake and storage. In contrast, the knowledge about the upper level of iron metabolism, the systemic level, was inadequate up to the end of the last century. This involves various unsolved questions pertaining to the regulation of intestinal iron uptake, various signalling pathways involved in the iron demand of individual cells and how these signals are transmitted to the iron stores and the intestine. The discovery of new metal transporters, receptors and peptides and as well as the discovery of new cross-interactions between known proteins are now leading to a breakthrough in the understanding of systemic iron metabolism. The objective of this book is to review and summarize recent developments in our understanding of iron transport and storage in living systems and how iron metabolism may be affected in anemias associated with chronic diseases and hemodialysis patients. It begins with a focus on normal systemic iron metabolism in humans focusing on the role of various iron containing proteins and the mechanisms involved in iron absorption and utilization. It then progresses to a detailed review on Cellular Iron metabolism with a special focus on the IRP/IRE regulatory network. One of the major roles of iron is in erythropoiesis which has been appropriately covered in one of the chapters. Though the emphasis is on human iron metabolism in physiological and pathological states, further knowledge is derived from the chapter on iron metabolism in pathogenic  trypanosomes. These parasites have developed distinct strategies to scavenge efficiently iron from the surrounding medium and support their metabolic needs, which differ between trypanosomatid species and life stages.
This book provides knowledge about iron metabolism and related diseases in 6 coordinated Chapters which can also be read as stand-alone. The new and essential path breaking insights into iron metabolism have been addressed in this book.
Together with the efforts of experienced and committed authors who spent their time and fundamentally contributed to the success of this book, I hope that a number of readers will enjoy the review Chapters and find a lot of information to develop new ideas in this rapidly ongoing field of investigation.


Dr Sarika Arora

Department of Biochemistry
ESI Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences & Research
Basaidarapur, New Delhi
India
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CONTENTS OF THE TEXTBOOK :



Chapter 1 Iron Metabolism in Humans: An Overview 3 Sarika Arora and Raj Kumar Kapoor .

 Chapter 2 Cellular Iron Metabolism – The IRP/IRE Regulatory Network 25 Ricky S. Joshi, Erica Morán and Mayka Sánchez.

 Chapter 3 Relationship Between Iron and Erythropoiesis 61 Nadia Maria Sposi.

 Chapter 4 Iron Deficiency in Hemodialysis Patients – Evaluation of a Combined Treatment with Iron Sucrose and Erythropoietin-Alpha: Predictors of Response, Efficacy and Safety 89 Martín Gutiérrez Martín, Maria Soledad Romero Colás, and José Antonio Moreno Chulilla.


Chapter 5 Role of Hepcidin in Dysregulation of Iron Metabolism and Anemia of Chronic Diseases. Bhawna Singh, Sarika Arora, SK Gupta and Alpana Saxena.

 Chapter 6 Iron Metabolism in Pathogenic Trypanosomes 147 Bruno Manta, Luciana Fleitas and Marcelo Comini


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