Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Luca Gallelli . 
732 pages .

Pharmacology appeared as a science around the XIX century, based on an experimental approach and evolved over the years. Today it studies the clinical efficacy or toxicity of drugs in biological systems, as well as the role of genetic factors 
in the drug responses. 
In this book we have tried to do a very detailed discussion on the receptors, 
pharmacogenetics and various other aspects, such as future applications in 
The first section of the book contains chapters which are discussing the role of 
molecular pharmacology of several receptors (e.g. cannabinoid and GABA), while the 
second section describes experimental studies in immunopharmacology.
Today pharmacogenetics represents a new emerging branch of pharmacology which 
assesses the response to the drug based on genetic characteristics, therefore the third 
section is dedicated to this argument. The fourth section has been dedicated to clinical 
pharmacology and pharmacovigilance, while the fifth section is explaining the 
implication of pharmacology in diagnostic. The chapters whose main topic is related 
to etnopharmacology and toxicology are included in sixth section. Finally, the last 
section is dedicated to future applications.

Luca Gallelli
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine,
School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro,
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Mater Domini Hospital,


Part 1 Pharmacodynamic 1

Chapter 1 Metabotropic Receptors for Glutamate and GABA 3
Gregory Stewart, Julie Kniazeff, Laurent Prézeau, Philippe Rondard, Jean-Philippe Pin and Cyril Goudet

Chapter 2 Interactions Between Glutamate Receptors and 
TRPV1 Involved in Nociceptive Processing at Peripheral Endings of Primary Afferent Fibers 43
You-Hong Jin, Motohide Takemura, Akira Furuyama and Norifumi Yonehara

Chapter 3 Molecular Pharmacology of Nucleoside and 
Nucleotide HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors 63
Brian D. Herman and Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

Chapter 4 Opioid Kappa Receptor Selective Agonist 
TRK-820 (Nalfurafine Hydrochloride) 81
Hideaki Fujii, Shigeto Hirayama and Hiroshi Nagase

Chapter 5 The Cannabinoid 1 Receptor and Progenitor Cells in the Adult Central Nervous System 99
Alexandra Sideris, Thomas Blanck and Esperanza Recio-Pinto

Chapter 6 Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor 
Alpha (PPAR) Agonists: A Potential Tool for a Healthy Aging Brain 123
Jennifer Tremblay-Mercier

Part 2 Experimental Study 141

Chapter 7 The Influence of Cyclophosphamide on 
Immune Function of Murine Macrophages 143
Krzysztof Bryniarski
Chapter 8 Modification of Interleukin-10 with Mannose-6-Phosphate Groups Yields a Liver-Specific Cytokine with Antifibrotic Activity in Rats 161
Heni Rachmawati, Adriana Mattos, Catharina Reker-Smit, Klaas Poelstra and Leonie Beljaars

Part 3 Pharmacogenetic 177

Chapter 9 Pharmacogenetics: The Scientific Basis 179
Bosun Banjoko

Chapter 10 Future of Pharmacogenetics in 
Cardiovascular Diseases 207
Rianne M.F. Van Schie, Talitha I. Verhoef, Anke-Hilse Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anthonius de Boer, Tom Schalekamp, Felix J.M. Van Der Meer, William K. Redekop and Rahber Thariani

Chapter 11 Warfarin Enantiomers Pharmacokinetics by CYP2C19 223
Yumiko Akamine and Tsukasa Uno

Chapter 12 Pharmacogenetics – 
A Treatment Strategy for Alcoholism 231
Anjana Munshi and Vandana Sharma

Part 4 Clinical Pharmacology 255

Chapter 13 Pharmacological Approaches to Improve Ageing 257
Pedro J. Camello, Cristina Camello-Almaraz and Maria J. Pozo

Chapter 14 Pharmacological Neuromodulation in 
Autism Spectrum Disorders 283
Bill J. Duke

Chapter 15 Pharmacology of Hormone 
Replacement Therapy in Menopause 313
Adela Voican, Bruno Francou, Liliana Novac, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet, Marianne Canonico, Geri Meduri, Marc Lombes, Pierre-Yves Scarabin, Jacques Young, Anne Guiochon-Mantel and Jérôme Bouligand

Chapter 16 A Multi-Level Analysis of World 
Scientific Output in Pharmacology 339
Carlos Olmeda-Gómez, Ma-Antonia Ovalle-Perandones and Antonio Perianes-Rodríguez

Chapter 17 Mephedrone-Related Fatalities in the United Kingdom: 
Contextual, Clinical and Practical Issues 355
John M. Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano and A. Hamid Ghodse
Chapter 18 Novel Strategies in Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury 381
Alberto Lázaro, Sonia Camaño, Blanca Humanes and Alberto Tejedor

Chapter 19 Chemical and Physical Enhancers for 
Transdermal Drug Delivery 397
José Juan Escobar-Chávez, Isabel Marlen Rodríguez-Cruz and Clara Luisa Domínguez-Delgado

Part 5 Diagnostic 435

Chapter 20 Application of Matrix-Assisted Laser 
Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry 437
Nobuhiro Zaima

Chapter 21 Closed-Loop Control of Anaesthetic Effect 453
Santiago Torres, Juan A. Méndez, Héctor Reboso, José A. Reboso and Ana León

Part 6 Ethnopharmacology and Toxicology 477

Chapter 22 The Influence of Displacement by 
Human Groups Among Regions in the Medicinal Use of Natural Resource: A Case Study in Diadema, São Paulo - Brazil 479
Daniel Garcia and Lin Chau Ming

Chapter 23 Unconventional Raw Natural Sustainable 
Sources for Obtaining Pharmacological Principles Potentially Active on CNS Through Catalytic, Ecologically Clean, Processes 519
Yanier Nuñez Figueredo, Juan E. Tacoronte Morales, Alicia Lagarto Parra, Olinka Tiomno Tiomnova, Jorge Tobella Sabater and Jorge Leyva Simeon

Chapter 24 Elucidating the Role of Biliverdin Reductase 
in the Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 as a Cytoprotective Response to Stress 535
James R. Reed

Chapter 25 Antibothropic Action of Camellia sinensis 
Extract Against the Neuromuscular Blockade by Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom and Its Main Toxin, Bothropstoxin-I 569
Yoko Oshima-Franco, Luana de Jesus Reis Rosa, Gleidy Ana Araujo Silva, Jorge Amaral Filho,
Magali Glauzer Silva, Patricia Santos Lopes, José Carlos Cogo, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra
and Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Chapter 26 The Effects of Viscum album (Mistletoe) QuFrF Extract and Vincristine in Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines – A Comparative Experimental Study Using Several and Different Parameters 587
Eva Kovacs

Chapter 27 Ethanol Toxicity in the Brain: 
Alteration of Astroglial Cell Function 607
Metoda Lipnik-Štangelj

Part 7 Future Applications 625

Chapter 28 The Involvement of Purinergic System in Pain: 
Adenosine Receptors and Inosine as Pharmacological Tools in Future Treatments 627
Francisney Pinto Nascimento, Sérgio José Macedo Jr. and Adair Roberto Soares Santos

Chapter 29 Therapeutic Organometallic Compounds 651
Beril Anilanmert

Chapter 30 Aging: Drugs to Eliminate Methylglyoxal, 
a Reactive Glucose Metabolite, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts 681
Indu Dhar and Kaushik Desai

Chapter 31 Ethanol Interference on Adenosine System 709
Silvânia Vasconcelos, Sarah Escudeiro, Ana Luíza Martin, Paula Soares, Antônio Vieira Filho, Larissa Silva, Kátia Cilene Dias, Danielle Macêdo, Francisca Cléa Sousa and Marta Fonteles . 

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