Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Ufuk Çobanoğlu .

Pulmonary embolism is a serious, potentially life-threatening cardiopulmonary disease 
that occurs due to partial or total obstruction of the pulmonary arterial bed. Pulmonary 
embolism constitutes 5-25% of in-hospital deaths, and mortality is decreased from 30% 
to 8% with early treatment. Therefore, risk factors should be identified and treatment 
should be planned to decrease the risk of mortality. Clinical findings, routine laboratory 
data, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and arterial blood gases are not sufficient to 
diagnose or rule out pulmonary embolus. The presence of some nonspecific findings 
such as dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, tachypnea, and tachycardia, and one or more risk 
factors for venous thromboembolism raise suspicion for pulmonary embolus. However,
it is not possible to diagnose pulmonary embolus with these factors. Recently, new 
improvement occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The aim of this 
disease is to re-review pulmonary embolism in the light of new developments. In this 
book, in addition to risk factors causing pulmonary embolus, a guide for systematic 
approaches to lead the risk stratification for decision making is also presented. In order 
to provide a maximum length of active life and continuation of functional abilities as the 
aim of new interventional gerontology, the risk factors causing pulmonary embolus in 
elderly individuals are evaluated, and the approach to prevention and treatment is 
defined. The risk of the development of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, 
combined with obesity due to immobility, the disease of this era, irregular and excessive
eating, and treatment management are highlighted. Non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli 
are also covered and an attempt is made to constitute an awareness of this picture that 
can change the treatment and prognosis of the disease to a considerable extent. In 
addition to the pathophysiological definition of pulmonary embolus, the priority goal of 
quick and definitive diagnosis is emphasized, and diagnostic strategies are discussed in 
the book. A numerical analysis of the vena cava filters, which is a current approach to 
prevent pulmonary emboli recurrences, is presented in the last chapter.
I would like to thank the authors of all chapters for their intense labor and efforts in 
the preparation of this book. It is our belief that the new opinions and approaches 
presented will be beneficial to the readers.

Dr. Ufuk Çobanoğlu
Yüzüncü Yıl University, School of Medicine
Chief of Department of Thoracic Surgery


Chapter 1 Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism 1
Ufuk Çobanoğlu

Chapter 2 Risk Stratification of Patients 
with Acute Pulmonary Embolism 19
Calvin Woon-Loong Chin

Chapter 3 Pulmonary Embolism in 
the Elderly – Significance and Particularities 37
Pavel Weber, Dana Weberová, Hana Kubešová and Hana Meluzínová

Chapter 4 Venous Thromboembolism in Bariatric Surgery 67
Eleni Zachari, Eleni Sioka, George Tzovaras and Dimitris Zacharoulis

Chapter 5 Non-Thrombotic Pulmonary Embolism 75
Vijay Balasubramanian, Malaygiri Aparnath and Jagrati Mathur

Chapter 6 Pathophysiology, Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism Focusing on Thrombolysis – New approaches 119
Diana Mühl, Gábor Woth, Tamás Kiss, Subhamay Ghosh and Jose E. Tanus-Santos

Chapter 7 Ventilation Perfusion Single 
Photon Emission Tomography (V/Q SPECT) in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism 143
Michel Leblanc

Chapter 8 Risk Stratification of Submassive 
Pulmonary Embolism: The Role of Chest Computed Tomography as an Alternative to Echocardiography 169
Won Young Kim, Shin Ahn and Choong Wook Lee

Chapter 9 Quantitative Ventilation/Perfusion 
Tomography: The Foremost Technique for Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis 185
Marika Bajc and Jonas Jögi

Chapter 10 Dual Source, Dual Energy 
Computed Tomography in Pulmonary Embolism 205
Yan’E Zhao, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu, Kevin P. Gibbs and U. Joseph Schoepf

Chapter 11 Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical 
Properties of a Vena Cava Filter 219
Kazuto Takashima, Koji Mori, Kiyoshi Yoshinaka and Toshiharu Mukai . 

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