Open Access Medical Books

Radiation Oncology Physics

Radiation Oncology Physics
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY .

Radiotherapy, also referred to as radiation therapy, radiation oncology or therapeutic radiology, is one of the three principal modalities used in the treatment of malignant disease (cancer), the other two being surgery and 
chemotherapy. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the 

clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its 
use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern 
technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose 

coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment.
The radiotherapy team consists of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists and radiation therapy technologists: all professionals characterized by widely differing educational backgrounds and one common 
link — the need to understand the basic elements of radiation physics, and the 

interaction of ionizing radiation with human tissue in particular. This
specialized area of physics is referred to as radiation oncology physics, and 
proficiency in this branch of physics is an absolute necessity for anyone who 
aspires to achieve excellence in any of the four professions constituting the 

radiotherapy team. Current advances in radiation oncology are driven mainly 

by technological development of equipment for radiotherapy procedures and 
imaging; however, as in the past, these advances rely heavily on the underlying 
physics.

This book is dedicated to students and teachers involved in programmes
that train professionals for work in radiation oncology. It provides a 

compilation of facts on the physics as applied to radiation oncology and as such 

will be useful to graduate students and residents in medical physics

programmes, to residents in radiation oncology, and to students in dosimetry 
and radiotherapy technology programmes. The level of understanding of the 

material covered will, of course, be different for the various student groups; 

however, the basic language and knowledge for all student groups will be the 

same. The text will also be of use to candidates preparing for professional 

certification examinations, whether in radiation oncology, medical physics,

dosimetry or radiotherapy technology.

The intent of the text is to serve as a factual supplement to the various 

textbooks on medical physics and to provide basic radiation oncology physics 
knowledge in the form of a syllabus covering all modern aspects of radiation 

oncology physics. While the text is mainly aimed at radiation oncology 

professionals, certain parts of it may also be of interest in other branches of
medicine that use ionizing radiation not for the treatment of disease but for the 
diagnosis of disease (diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). The contents 
may also be useful for physicists who are involved in studies of radiation 


hazards and radiation protection (health physics).
This book represents a collaborative effort by professionals from many 
different countries who share a common goal of disseminating their radiation 

oncology physics knowledge and experience to a broad international audience 

of teachers and students. Special thanks are due to J. Denton-MacLennan for 

critically reading and editing the text and improving its syntax.

                                                                                                                                       
 E.B. Podgorsak.


CONTENTS :

CHAPTER 1. BASIC RADIATION PHYSICS .  

1.1. INTRODUCTION .  
1.1.1. Fundamental physical constants (rounded off to four significant figures) .  
1.1.2. Important derived physical constants and relationships .  
1.1.3. Physical quantities and units .  
1.1.4. Classification of forces in nature . 
1.1.5. Classification of fundamental particles .  
1.1.6. Classification of radiation .  
1.1.7. Classification of ionizing photon radiation . 
1.1.8. Einstein’s relativistic mass, energy and momentum relationships .  
1.1.9. Radiation quantities and units . 

1.2. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE .  

1.2.1. Basic definitions for atomic structure . 
1.2.2. Rutherford’s model of the atom . 
1.2.3. Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom .  
1.2.4. Multielectron atoms . 
1.2.5. Nuclear structure .  
1.2.6. Nuclear reactions . 
1.2.7. Radioactivity . 
1.2.8. Activation of nuclides . 
1.2.9. Modes of radioactive decay .  

1.3. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS .  

1.3.1. Electron–orbital electron interactions .  
1.3.2. Electron–nucleus interactions . 
1.3.3. Stopping power . 
1.3.4. Mass scattering power .  

1.4. PHOTON INTERACTIONS .  

1.4.1. Types of indirectly ionizing photon radiation . 
1.4.2. Photon beam attenuation .  
1.4.3. Types of photon interaction .  
1.4.4. Photoelectric effect .  
1.4.5. Coherent (Rayleigh) scattering . 
1.4.6. Compton effect (incoherent scattering) .  
1.4.7. Pair production .  
1.4.8. Photonuclear reactions .  
1.4.9. Contributions to attenuation coefficients . 
1.4.10. Relative predominance of individual effects . 
1.4.11. Effects following photon interactions .  
1.4.12. Summary of photon interactions . 
1.4.13. Example of photon attenuation . 
1.4.14. Production of vacancies in atomic shells . 
BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

CHAPTER 2. DOSIMETRIC PRINCIPLES, QUANTITIES AND UNITS . 

2.1. INTRODUCTION . 
2.2. PHOTON FLUENCE AND ENERGY FLUENCE . 
2.3. KERMA . 
2.4. CEMA . 
2.5. ABSORBED DOSE .  
2.6. STOPPING POWER .  
2.7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS DOSIMETRIC QUANTITIES .  
2.7.1. Energy fluence and kerma (photons) . 
2.7.2. Fluence and dose (electrons) .  
2.7.3. Kerma and dose (charged particle equilibrium) . 
2.7.4. Collision kerma and exposure .  
2.8. CAVITY THEORY .  
2.8.1. Bragg–Gray cavity theory .  
2.8.2. Spencer–Attix cavity theory . 
2.8.3. Considerations in the application of cavity theory to ionization chamber calibration and dosimetry protocols .  
2.8.4. Large cavities in photon beams .  
2.8.5. Burlin cavity theory for photon beams . 
2.8.6. Stopping power ratios . 
BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

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Published by: younes younes - Sunday, January 20, 2013

1 Komentar untuk "Radiation Oncology Physics"

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