Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Barakat S. M. Mahmoud .

450 pages .
Open Access .

Salmonella is a gram-negative microorganism, widely dispersed in nature and often  found in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. More than 2,500 serotypes of  Salmonella exist, but only some of these serotypes have been frequently associated  with food-borne illnesses. The pathogenic Salmonella is a life threatening bacterium,  and it is a leading cause of food-borne bacterial illnesses in humans. After  Campylobacter, Salmonella is the second most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Salmonella pathogens may primarily spread through the feces of wildlife and domestic animals, contaminated water, poor fertilization methods, and other agricultural practices. Salmonella serotypes can grow and survive in many different foods. The behavior of Salmonella in foods is governed by a variety of environmental and ecological factors. These include water activity, pH, chemical composition, the presence of natural or added antimicrobial agents, and storage temperature and processing factors, such as the application of heat and physical manipulation.
Food-borne infections from Salmonella are obtained through ingesting contaminated food or water. Poultry, eggs, beef, and milk products are the main vehicles in the salmonellosis outbreak, and secondary sources are foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood. Since 1962, registered cases of human salmonellosis caused by contaminated food have been steadily increasing. Salmonellosis, or Salmonella infection, caused by nontyphoid strains is the most common food-borne disease reported from population-based, active laboratory surveillance in the United States. 
However, since the 1980s, food-borne salmonellosis from Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis has increased. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that the incidence of Salmonella infections in 2010 was significantly higher than during the period 2006–2008.
Often, most people who suffer from Salmonella infections may have temporary gastroenteritis, which usually does not require treatment. However, when infection becomes invasive, antimicrobial treatment is mandatory. Symptoms generally occur 8 to 72 hours after ingestion of the pathogen and can last 3 to 5 days. Children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals are the most susceptible to salmonellosis infections. The annual economic cost due to food-borne Salmonella infections in the United States alone is estimated at $2.4 billion, with an estimated 1.4 million cases of salmonellosis and more than 500 deaths annually. Many milder cases are not reported, making the estimated number of salmonellosis cases in the United States thirty times the number of reported cases.
The chapters contained in this book describe a range of different topics, such as the role of foods in Salmonella infections, food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella, biofilm formation by Salmonella (Salmonella grows predominantly as biofilm in most of its natural habitats). Additional topics include antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates (the multidrug resistance of Salmonella, which reduces the
therapeutic options in cases of invasive infections and could potentially be associated with an increased burden of illness), methods for controlling Salmonella in food, and Salmonella isolation and identification methods to ensure the safety of food.
Contributing to this book are internationally renowned scientists who have provided a diverse and global perspective of the issues of concern with the Salmonella pathogen.
This book serves as an excellent resource for those interested in Salmonella. In fact, this book is intended to be primarily a reference book. However, it also summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding Salmonella, and it contains ideas for future research. The editor is indebted to the participating authors for their state-of-the-art contributions in providing authoritative views resulting from their research on this dangerous Salmonella pathogen.

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud, PhD

A. Professor of Food Safety and Microbiology
Mississippi State University


 1 The Burden of Salmonellosis in the United States 1 Patricia L. Cummings, Frank Sorvillo and Tony Kuo

 2 The Role of Foods in Salmonella Infections 21 Carlos Alberto Gómez-Aldapa, Ma. del Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López and Javier Castro-Rosas

 3 Food as Cause of Human Salmonellosis 47 Valerio Giaccone, Paolo Catellani and Leonardo Alberghini

 4 The Occurrence of Salmonella in Various Marine Environments in Turkey 73 Gülşen Altuğ

 5 Salmonella in Fish and Fishery Products 91 İlkan Ali Olgunoğlu

 6 Occurrence of Salmonella in Minimally Processed Vegetables 109 Silvana Mariana Srebernich and Neliane Ferraz de Arruda Silveira

 7 Isolation and Identification of Salmonellas from Different Samples 123 Birol Özkalp

 8 Attachment and Biofilm Formation by Salmonella in Food Processing Environments 157 Efstathios Giaouris, Nikos Chorianopoulos, Panagiotis Skandamis and George-John Nychas

 9 Important Aspects of Salmonella in the Poultry Industry and in Public Health 181 Eliana N. Castiglioni Tessari, Ana Maria Iba Kanashiro, Greice F. Z. Stoppa, Renato L. Luciano, Antonio Guilherme M. De Castro and Ana Lucia S. P. Cardoso

 10 Salmonella Saintpaul Outbreak: Export and Trade Economic Impact 207 Nohelia Castro-del Campo, Cristóbal Chaidez, José A. Medrano-Félix, J. Basilio Heredia, Josefina León-Félix, Gustavo González Aguilar and J. Fernando Ayala Zavala

 11 Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Domestic Animals, Humans and Meat Products 215 Margaret. L. Khaitsa and Dawn Doetkott

 12 Alternative Strategies for Salmonella Control in Poultry 259 G. Tellez, Lisa R. Bielke and B. M. Hargis

 13 Recent Advances in the Application of Non Thermal Methods for the Prevention of Salmonella in Foods 287 Shilpi Gupta and Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

 14 Use Thyme Essential Oils for the Prevention of Salmonellosis 305 Abderrahmane Romane, Rajae Harrak and Fouad Bahri

 15 Inhibitory Effect of Plant Extracts on Salmonella spp. 333 Krittika Norajit and Gi-Hyung Ryu

 16 Laboratory Typing Methods for Diagnostic of Salmonella Strains, the “Old” Organism That Continued Challenges 349 Ben Salem Imen, Mzoughi Ridha and Aouni Mahjoub

 17 Salmonella Detection Methods for Food and Food Ingredients 373 Joseph A. Odumeru and Carlos G. León-Velarde

 18 Detection of Salmonella spp. Presence in Food 393 Anna Zadernowska and Wioleta Chajęcka

 19 Studies on PCR-Based Rapid Detection Systems for Salmonella spp. 413 Jeongsoon Kim .

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, January 24, 2013


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