Open Access Medical Books

SALMONELLA – A DIVERSIFIED SUPERBUG

SALMONELLA

Edited by Yashwant Kumar .

Open Access .


The genus Salmonella comprises a diverse range of bacteria which contain a collective of some 2579 serovars in Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Being the etiological agent across a spectrum of diseases, ranging from reptiles to humans, Salmonella presents an array of continuously emerging challenges in front of the researchers.
Salmonella is ubiquitous and possess the capability to respond and survive in a wide variety of environments.
Salmonella is a genus of bacteria that is a major cause of food-borne illness throughout the world, posing a high economic burden. The bacteria is generally transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated food that originates from animals - primarily meat, poultry, eggs and milk and other dairy products.
Because of the increasing resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including third generation cephalosporins, the antimicrobial chemotherapy using available antibiotics has been hindered. The scenario has been further aggravated by the emergence of plasmid-borne fluoroquinolone resistance in both typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonellae and horizontal transfer of gene coding for antimicrobial resistance.
Resistance to cephalosporins, due to the production of extended – spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is an ever increasing problem, and it is a cause of serious concern worldwide.
These enzymes have been detected in many species of the family enterobacteriaceae, including different serovars of Salmonella enterica. The ability of Salmonella to exist in biofilm further complicates its removal and ensures its prolonged existence.
Although several reports have been published highlighting the re-emergence of susceptibility to the conventionally used drugs, antimicrobial resistance continues to be the major problem in front of health authorities. This also points towards the ever changing fluidic nature of antibiogram patterns, which necessitates strong and effective surveillance systems able to spot changes in the antibiogram patterns to enable health authorities to respond to these changes immediately.
There have been plenty of available research publications focusing on different aspects of Salmonella in the last decade. So, what is the need for a book on Salmonella? The answer is simple. Today, the number of infections due to Salmonella in humans and animals resulting in high morbidity, mortality, and ultimately leading to huge economic losses pathogenicity, resistance, and immunoprophylaxis to provide better understanding of this bacterium which may help in combating this microorganism efficiently. In this book, an effort has been made to compile different studies on Salmonella by internationally acclaimed experts, providing a timely snapshot of the current state of research on Salmonella. The book is not only informative, but also enjoyable to read. The book contains six sections - each with a different focus on Salmonella in terms of the its impact on the environment, antimicrobial resistance, genetics, immunology, pathogenesis, and application of novel techniques.
Section I comprises of the studies on environmental interactions of Salmonella, including biofilm production and its existence in different ecological niches. Section II presents different studies on emerging problem of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella group.
The section also discusses the possibility of employing different plant metabolites for treatment of Salmonella infections. Section III gives insight into different genetic aspects of Salmonella, including genetic diversity and evolutionary aspects. Section IV covers different studies revealing several immunological responses to Salmonella. It also discusses the development of vaccines using Salmonella as a live carrier of the antigens.
Additionally, the section also presents the studies on the evaluation of the Salmonella  vaccines for control of the disease. Section V deals with different aspects of Salmonella,  covering mechanisms of pathogenesis, insect-bacteria association and its role in  nosocomial infections, and use of animal models for studies on pathogenesis. Section VI  covers the application of rapid and advanced techniques for the diagnosis of Salmonella  infections in outbreak investigations. Moreover, the section also provides insight into  immunoimmobilization of Salmonella for biosensor applications.
I put together this book and it is my hope that it will provide information for all  researchers dealing with Salmonella. The book will assist in better understanding of  various facets of Salmonella and provides an up-to-date insight into the research on  this disease.


Yashwant Kumar
Natinal Salmonella and Escherichia Center
Central Research Institute
India

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CONTENTS : 



Part 1 Environmental Interactions .


Chapter 1 Invasion and Survival of Salmonella in the Environment: The Role of Biofilms 3
Cynthia L. Sheffield and Tawni L. Crippen


Chapter 2 Motility and Energy Taxis of Salmonella spp. 29
Andreas E. Zautner

Chapter 3 Influence of a Salt Water Regulator on 
the Survival Response of Salmonella Paratyphi in Vembanadu Lake: India 47
Chandran Abhirosh, Asit Mazumder, Sherin Varghese, A.P Thomas and A.A.M Hatha


Part 2 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy .


Chapter 4 Antibiotic Resistance and the Prospects of Medicinal Plants in the Treatment
of Salmonellosis 65
A.A. Aliero and A.D. Ibrahim

Chapter 5 Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of 
Salmonella Typhi in Jakarta and Surrounding Areas 91
Lucky H. Moehario, Enty Tjoa, Veronica N. K. D. Kalay and Angela Abidin

Chapter 6 Salmonellas Antibiotic Sensibility and Resistance; The Sensitivity to Herb Extracts and
New Synthesize Compounds 99
Birol Özkalp

Chapter 7 Xylariaceae Endophytic Fungi Metabolites 
Against Salmonella 119
Fernanda Pinheiro de Carvalho Ribeiro, Fernanda Carolina Sousa Fonseca, Isabella Alves Reis,
Isabella Santos Araújo, Hélio Mitoshi Kamida, Alexsandro Branco and Ana Paula Trovatti Uetanabaro

Chapter 8 Nanotechnology Tools for Efficient Antibacterial 
Delivery to Salmonella 139
Ali Nokhodchi, Taravat Ghafourian and Ghobad Mohammadi

Chapter 9 Mexican Plants Used in the Salmonellosis Treatment 169
Daniel Arrieta-Baez, Rosario Ruiz de Esparza and Manuel Jiménez-Estrada

Chapter 10 Effect of Sanitizers and Oregano Essential Oils 
to Reduce the Incidence of Salmonella and Other Pathogens in Vegetables 185
Saul Ruiz-Cruz, Gustavo A. González-Aguilar, José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Luis A. Cira-Chávez
and J. Fernando Ayala-Zavala

Chapter 11 Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella: 
A Risk for Tropical Aquaculture 195
Renata Albuquerque Costa, Fátima Cristiane Teles de Carvalho and Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira

Part 3 Genetics .


Chapter 12 Reticulate Evolution Among the Group I Salmonellae: An Ongoing Role for Horizontal Gene Transfer 209
Eric W. Brown, Rebecca L. Bell, Marc W. Allard, Narjol Gonzalez- Escalona, Andrei Perlloni, Joseph E. LeClerc and Thomas A. Cebula

Chapter 13 The Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements in 
the Evolution of Salmonella: Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Resistance and Host Adaptation 231
Claudia Silva, Magdalena Wiesner and Edmundo Calva

Chapter 14 Salmonella as a Unique Tool for Genetic Toxicology 255
Mehmet Karadayı, Özlem Barış and Medine Güllüce

Part 4 Immunology .


Chapter 15 Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis (SE) Infection in Chickens and Its Public-Health-Risk Control Using an SE Vaccine in Layer Flocks 279
Hiroaki Ohta and Yukiko Toyota-Hanatani

Chapter 16 Salmonella as Live Carrier of Antigens 
in Vaccine Development 309
César Gonzalez Bonilla, Ericka Pompa Mera, Alberto Diaz Quiñonez and Sara Huerta Yepez

Chapter 17 Neutrophil Cellular Responses to Various 
Salmonella typhimurium LPS Chemotypes 327
Anna N. Zagryazhskaya, Svetlana I. Galkina, Zoryana V. Grishina, Galina M. Viryasova,
Julia M. Romanova, Michail I. Lazarenko, Dieter Steinhilber and Galina F. Sud’ina

Chapter 18 Use of Isolation and Antibody Detection 
for Salmonella Assessment 351
Marina Štukelj, Vojka Bole-Hribovšek, Jasna Mićunović and Zdravko Valenčak

Chapter 19 The Central Nervous System Modulates 
the Immune Response to Salmonella 375
Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Andres Quintanar Stephano, Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Edgar Abarca-Rojano, Istvan Berczi, Javier Ventura-Juárez and Alexandre Kormanovski

Chapter 20 Porins in the Inflammatory and Immunological 
Response Following Salmonella Infections 399
Emilia Galdiero, Aikaterini Kampanaraki, Eleonora Mignogna and Marilena Galdiero

Chapter 21 Serology as an Epidemiological Tool for 
Salmonella Abortusovis Surveillance in the Wild-Domestic Ruminant Interface 413
Pablo Martín-Atance, Luis León and Mónica G. Candela


Part 5 Pathogenesis .


Chapter 22 Animal Models for Salmonella Pathogenesis: Studies on the Virulence Properties Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Host 433
Jeong Hoon Cho and Jaya Bandyopadhyay

Chapter 23 Insect/Bacteria Association and Nosocomial Infection 449
Marcos Antônio Pesquero, Lílian Carla Carneiro and Débora De Jesus Pires

Chapter 24 The Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 and -2 
Encoded Type III Secretion Systems 469
Amanda Wisner, Taseen Desin, Aaron White, Andrew Potter and Wolfgang Köster

Part 6 Novel Techniques .


Chapter 25 Immunoimmobilization of Living Salmonella for Fundamental Studies and Biosensor Applications 497
Zhiyong Suo, Muhammedin Deliorman, Sukriye Celikkol, Xinghong Yang and Recep Avci

Chapter 26 New Options for Rapid Typing of Salmonella enterica 
Serovars for Outbreak Investigation 523
Ian L. Ross, Chun Chun Young and Michael W. Heuzenroeder

Chapter 27 Multiplex TaqMan Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Assay Targeting prot6E and invA Genes for Fast and Accurate Detection of Salmonella Enteritidis 541
Narjol González-Escalona, Guodong Zhang and Eric W. Brown


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