Open Access Medical Books

SEPSIS – AN ONGOING AND SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE

SEPSIS

Edited by Luciano Azevedo .

Open Access .


Sepsis, the inflammatory response after an infection, comprises a spectrum of  conditions ranging from systemic inflammatory response syndrome to septic shock and multisystem organ failure, the deadly forms of the disease. Sepsis is the major cause of death in non-cardiologic intensive care units around the world. Every year, billions of dollars are consumed in the treatment of patients with this condition as well as in research in order to understand its complex pathophysiology and therefore obtain future therapeutic opportunities. Despite the efforts of the scientists and
medical practitioners, the mortality rates are still very high, mainly for underdeveloped and developing countries. In addition, the annual incidence of the disease is increasing, probably due to progressive aging of the population, improvements in critical care support and in immunosuppressive therapies so that individuals with immunosuppression now have increased life expectancy.
In this book we intend to provide an update on several fields of this disease. Starting from the history of sepsis and finishing with treatment of sepsis-associated organ dysfunctions, this book offers a wide scope of well-written and complete reviews concerning several pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of sepsis. We hope that the laborious work of the authors will provide an important forum of discussion on the topic, and increase the awareness of the healthcare team regarding the important aspects of early recognition and treatment of this severe condition.
I would also like to acknowledge the assistance of the publishing team and the invitation of the publisher to edit such an interesting and important book.
Finally, I would like to thank all of the authors for their excellent contributions.


Luciano CP Azevedo

State University of São Paulo School of Medicine
Federal University of São Paulo
Instituto Sirio-Libanes de Ensino e Pesquisa, São Paulo
Brazil
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CONTENTS :


Section 1 History of Sepsis .


Chapter 1 The History of Sepsis from Ancient Egypt to the XIX Century 3 
Johan Sebastián Hernández Botero and María Cristina Florián Pérez

Section 2 Sepsis Pathophysiology and Animal Studies 


Chapter 2 Experimental Sepsis Models 35 
Safiah Mai, Momina Khan, Patricia Liaw and Alison Fox-Robichaud


Chapter 3 Sepsis, the Liver and the Gut 71 Neville Azzopardi, Manuel Fenech and Tonio Piscopo

Chapter 4 Nerve Growth Factor and Sepsis 105 
Ayse Belin Ozer and Mustafa Bayar

Chapter 5 Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Sepsis 119 
Peixin Huang, Ding You Li, Daniel P. Heruth, Li Qin Zhang, Dmitry N. Grigoryev and Shui Qing Ye

Chapter 6 Neural Reflex Control of Inflammation
During Sepsis Syndromes 133 Ricardo Fernandez and Claudio Acuña-Castillo

Section 3 Biomarkers in Sepsis 


Chapter 7 Early Detection of Sepsis, MOF and Outcome Prediction 
in Severely Traumatized Patients 159 Zeljko Lausevic and Mirjana Lausevic

Chapter 8 New Biomarkers for Sepsis 171 
Lixin Xie

Chapter 9 The Role of Procalcitonin in the Early Diagnosis of Septic and 
Non-Septic Complications in the Immediate Postoperative Setting After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation 187 Aristotelis Perrakis, Volker Müller, Werner Hohenberger and Roland S. Croner

Chapter 10 Microdialysis Monitoring of Biomarkers 
for Early Recognition of Intestinal Ischemia 205 Radha Swathe Priya M. and Emma P. Córcoles

Chapter 11 Challenges in the Diagnosis of Sepsis of the Neonate 233
Bernhard Resch, Nora Hofer and Wilhelm Müller

Chapter 12 Relevance of Procalcitonin for the Diagnosis of Early 
and Late-Onset Sepsis in Newborns 249 C. Savagner, B. Leboucher, G. Gascoin-Lachambre and C. Gras-Leguen

Section 4 Microbiology and Antimicrobial Therapy in Sepsis 


Chapter 13 Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Critical Care 261 
Efraín Riveros Pérez

Chapter 14 Beware of Unusual Organisms 
Masquerading as Skin Contaminants 275 Marilynn R. Fairfax and Hossein Salimnia

Chapter 15 Blood Culture Systems: From Patient to Result 287 
Andries William Dreyer

Chapter 16 Sepsis: Antimicrobial Therapy 311 
Renato Finkelstein and Ilana Oren

Section 5 Sepsis in Specific Populations 


Chapter 17 Infections in Leukemia 333 
Rekha Chandran, Morgan Hakki and Stephen Spurgeon

Section 6 Treatment of Sepsis-Associated Dysfunctions 


Chapter 18 Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Patients 
with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock 371 F.J. García-Miguel

Chapter 19 Induction Agents for Endotracheal Intubation 
in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock 391 Marie Mullen .


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