Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Efraín Gaxiola .

Atherothrombosis has reached pandemic proportions worldwide. It is the underlying 
condition that results in events leading to myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and 
vascular death. As such, it is the leading cause of death worldwide manifested mainly 
as cardiovascular/cerebrovascular death.
As the population of many countries becomes more aged, so the burden of 
atherothrombosis increases. The burden of atherothrombosis is felt in numerous ways: 
shortened life expectancy, increased morbidity and mortality and future risk of 
consequences in multiple systems. 
Although therapeutic improvements and public health policies for risk factors control 
have brought about a reduction in atherothrombosis among the general population, 
this success has not been extended to some group populations as diabetics.
The complex and intimate relationship between atherothrombosis and traditional and 
novel risk factors is discussed in the following chapters of Traditional and Novel Risk 
Factors in Atherothrombosis – from basic science to clinical and therapeutic concerns. 

Beginning with pathology and pathophysiology of atherothrombosis, plaque 
rupture/disruption, this book continues with molecular, biochemical, inflammatory, 
cellular aspects and finally analyzes several aspects of clinical pharmacology.
This book is made up of seven chapters. In the first, Yamashita and Asada delineate 
the pathophysiologic mechanisms of plaque disruption and thrombus formation as 
critical steps for the onset of cardiovascular events, and that simultaneous activation of 
coagulation cascade and platelets play an important role in thrombus formation after 
plaque disruption. Next, Body, Slevin and McDowell discuss current methods for 
assessment of the presence, degree of severity and ‘plaque composition’ in patients 
with atherosclerosis, incuding current and novel imaging technology and 
measurement of circulating biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Subsequently, Watanabe 
and Koba clarify the roles of Serotonin in atherothrombosis and its related diseases, 
and how serotonin plays a crucial role in the formation of thrombosis and 
atherosclerotic lesions through 5-HT2A receptors. Po-Hsun Huang analyzes the 
therapeutic use of endothelial progenitor cell in cardiovascular diseases. Yacoub, 
Hassan, Alaadine, Merhi, and Mourad discuss the role of CD40 Ligand and its 
receptors in atherothrombosis. They show that besides its pivotal role in humoral 
immunity, CD40L is now regarded as a key player to all major phases of 
atherothrombosis, a concept supported in part by the strong relationship between its 
circulating soluble levels and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The last two 
chapters are dedicated to diagnostic and therapeutic issues. Shalia and Shah describe 
the current use of diagnostic biomarkers in ACS, as well as novel cardiac biomarkers 
of ACS. Sharma and Aronow talk about the optimal diagnosis and management of 
lower extremity peripheral arterial disease, detailing both the classical and modern 
therapeutic options.
I would like to pay tribute and express our appreciation to the distinguished and 
internationally renowned collaborators of this book for their outstanding contribution.
Despite their many commitments and busy time schedules, all of them enthusiastically 
stated their acquiescence to cooperate. This book could not have become a reality were 
it not for their dedicated efforts.

Efraín Gaxiola, MD, FACC

Cardiology Chief
Jardínes Hospital de Especialidades


Chapter 1 Pathology and Pathophysiology of 
Atherothrombosis: Virchow’s Triad Revisited 1
Atsushi Yamashita and Yujiro Asada

Chapter 2 Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis and Acute Coronary Syndromes – A Clinical Perspective 
Richard Body, Mark Slevin and Garry McDowell

Chapter 3 Roles of Serotonin in Atherothrombosis and Related Diseases 57
Takuya Watanabe and Shinji Koba

Chapter 4 Endothelial Progenitor Cell in Cardiovascular Diseases 71
Po-Hsun Huang

Chapter 5 CD40 Ligand and Its Receptors in Atherothrombosis 79
Daniel Yacoub, Ghada S. Hassan, Nada Alaadine, Yahye Merhi and Walid Mourad

Chapter 6 In Search for Novel Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome 97
Kavita K. Shalia and Vinod K. Shah

Chapter 7 Lower Extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease 119
Aditya M. Sharma and Herbert D. Aronow

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Published by: Unknown - Monday, January 21, 2013


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