Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Fayez Bahmad Jr .

Up to Date on Tinnitus is directed toward the clinicians and provides detailed 
information on diagnosis of many different forms of tinnitus and their treatment as 
well as an overview of what is known about their pathophysiology.
Accordingly, this book does not cover all the different theories and management of 
tinnitus, but it does present an up-to-date information for those who deal with tinnitus 
in their clinical praxis such as otolaryngologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, 
neurosurgeons, clinical audiologists, dentists, and psychologists.
This book encompasses both theoretical background of the different forms of tinnitus 
and detailed knowledge on state-of-the-art treatment of tinnitus, written for clinicians 
by clinicians and researchers. Realizing the complexity of tinnitus has highlighted the 
importance of interdisciplinary research. Therefore, each of the authors contributing to 
the “Up-to-date on Tinnitus” were chosen from many specialties of medicine, like 
surgery, psychology, and neuroscience, and came from diverse areas of expertise, such 
as Neurology, Neurosurgery, Audiology, Otolaryngology, Psychiatry, Clinical and 
Experimental Psychology, Pharmacology, Dentistry, and Neuroscience.
Many structures of the body, such as the ear, the auditory nervous system, the 
somatosensory system, other parts of the brain, muscles of the head and the neck are 
directly or indirectly involved in different forms of tinnitus. Treating and 
understanding the pathology of tinnitus requires better knowledge of otopathology 
and the involvement of many specialties of medicine, such as surgery, psychology, 
and neuroscience. Hearing loss may occur by genetic defects, presbycusis, viral or 
bacterial infection, temporal bone trauma, noise exposure, administration of ototoxical 
agents, but the cause of subjective tinnitus is often unknown. Severe tinnitus is often 
accompanied by symptoms, such as hyperacusis (lowered tolerance to sound) and 
distortion of sounds. Affective disorders such as phonophobia (fear of sound) and 
depression often occur in individuals with severe tinnitus. With such differences in 
symptoms, it is unreasonable to expect that a single cause can be responsible for severe 
tinnitus, which is yet another factor that makes managing the tinnitus patient a 
challenge for health care professionals.
Chapter 1 provides the reader with current knowledge on tinnitus and hearing loss; 
Chapters 2 and 3 describe the relation between stomatognathic system and the 
development of tinnitus and provide details on how tinnitus can appear in patients 
suffering with temporo mandibular disorders; Chapter 4 discusses the outcome of 
somatic tinnitus in clinical practice, an ideal integrated management.
Chapter 5 introduces possibilities for tinnitus management in the emergency 
department; Chapter 6 presents a critical overview of the Medico-Legal Decision 
Making in NIHL-Related Tinnitus; Chapter 7 discusses the components of Metabolic 
Syndrome and Their Relation with Tinnitus; Chapters 8 and 9 offer new alternative 
treatments of tinnitus as home medical device for Tinnitus Treatment and Bhramari 
Pranayama as Alternative Treatments; Finally, Chapter 10 presents the “Emotional 
Side” of Subjective Tinnitus.
It is a huge challenge to translate the results from basic research into clinical practice 
and all the authors have attempted to present the pathophysiological model in a clear 
way. Still the principles on which it is based and its mechanisms are complex and their 
understanding requires knowledge from various areas of neuroscience and the fact 
that tinnitus is not a simple disease but a group of diseases means tinnitus cannot be 
effectively treated by a single approach, and several disciplines of health care must be 
The Editor would like to thank Ms Romana Vukelic for her support in the preparation 
of this book. 
Special thanks are due to Professor Carlos Oliveira for making valuable discussions 
and suggestions during the editing of the book.

Fayez Bahmad Jr, MD, PhD
Health Science Faculty,
University of Brasilia,


Part 1 Tinnitus and Hearing Loss 1

Chapter 1 Tinnitus and Hearing Loss 3
Fayez Bahmad Jr, Carlos Augusto C.P. Oliveira and Lisiane Holdefer

Part 2 Tinnitus and Stomatognathic System 13

Chapter 2 Tinnitus and Temporomandibular Disorders 15
Kengo Torii

Chapter 3 Tinnitus and a Linked Stomatognathic System 33
Luis Miguel Ramirez Aristeguieta

Part 3 Somatic Tinnitus 69

Chapter 4 Tinnitus School – 
An Integrated Management of Somatic Tinnitus 71
D. Alpini A. Cesarani and A. Hahn

Part 4 Tinnitus in the Emergency 85

Chapter 5 Evaluation of Tinnitus in the Emergency Department 87
Kerry J. Welsh, Audrey R. Nath and Matthew R. Lewin

Part 5 Tinnitus and Noise Induced Hearing Loss 99

Chapter 6 Medico-Legal Decision Making in NIHL-Related Tinnitus 101
P.H. Dejonckere

Part 6 Tinnitus and Metabolic Syndromes 115

Chapter 7 Components of Metabolic Syndrome
and Their Relation to Tinnitus 117
Ludovit Gaspar, Michal Makovnik, Matej Bendzala, Stella Hlinstakova, Ivan Ocadlik and Eva Gasparova

Part 7 New Alternative Treatments of Tinnitus 135

Chapter 8 Home Medical Device for Tinnitus Treatment 137
Martin Lenhardt

Chapter 9 Bhramari Pranayama 
and Alternative Treatments of Tinnitus: In Pursuit of the Cure 153
Sidheshwar Pandey

Part 8 Emotional Side of Tinnitus 171

Chapter 10 The “Emotional Side” of Subjective Tinnitus 173
Roberto Teggi, Daniela Caldirola, Giampaolo Perna and Mario Bussi  .

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Published by: Unknown - Sunday, January 27, 2013

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