Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Saša Frank and Gerhard Kostner .

744 pages .
Open Access . 

Lipids are water insoluble in nature and need to be transported in body fluids in the form of lipid:protein complexes, i.e. lipoproteins. Lipoproteins consist of a lipid core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, and an amphiphilic surface of free cholesterol and phospholipids. Apolipoproteins (apo-Lp) are interchelated into surface lipids of the lipid droplet forming the mature plasma lipoproteins (Fig.1).
Nascent lipoproteins on the other hand lack the lipid core and have a disc like structure. There are four main lipoprotein density classes - chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) - and yet each of them may be divided into numerous subfractions. The major function of lipoproteins is the delivery of nutrient lipids, i.e. triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol, to various organs and tissues. Whereas dietary TG and PL may be absorbed up to almost 100%, the absorption rate of cholesterol ranges from 30 – 60% only and is influenced by genes and other nutritional factors. There exist some 15 or more proteins associated with lipids in the form of apo-Lp that function as “structural proteins”, co-factors and inhibitors of enzymes, ligands for specific cell surface receptors and possibly others. Although unsaturated and polyunsaturated fat is considered to be beneficial, these lipids are prone to oxidation and degradation. These products contribute significantly to common diseases found in civilized countries such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, Type-2 diabetes mellitus, stroke, Alzheimer disease but also auto-immune diseases and cancer. A major trigger for these diseases is LDL whose mass consist to approx. 50% of cholesterol. Oxidized and modified LDL are taken up by scavenger receptors of macrophages and transform them into foam cells. Foam cells in turn synthesize
inflammatory cytokines and enzymes hat lead to a vicious cycle of self-perpetuation that triggers smooth muscle cell proliferation, lipid deposition and plaque formation in the arterial intima (Fig.2).
Similar pathways appear to be also involved in Alzheimer disease and cancer. HDL on the other hand have anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic anti-oxidative effects and therefore are considered to be beneficial (Fig.3).
As we know there exist so called “LDL” creatures such as primates or rabbits that easily develop atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction upon overfeeding with lipid rich diet. On the other hand, “HDL” creatures such as rats, mice and dogs hardly develop atherosclerosis by feeding them an atherogenic Western-type diet. Thus numerous attempts are made to interfere with elevated LDL and low HDL concentrations therapeutically in individuals at increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke.
By typing into databases such as Medline or PubMed the word “lipoprotein” one gets more than 100.000 hits that highlights the common interest in this topic. It is actually impossible to cover all aspects of lipoprotein structure, function, metabolism and pathophysiology in one issue like the present volume, but attempts have been made to concentrate on topics that are in focus of current lipoprotein research. These topics have been divided into 10 sections.....

Saša Frank and Gerhard Kostner
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry,
Medical University of Graz, Graz,


Section 1 : Lipoprotein Structure and Assembly .

  1 Lipoprotein Structure and Dynamics: 
Low Density Lipoprotein Viewed as a Highly Dynamic and Flexible Nanoparticle 3 Ruth Prassl and Peter Laggner

  2 New Insights into the Assembly and 
Metabolism of ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins from in vivo Kinetic Studies: Results on Healthy Subjects and Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 21 Benjamin Dieplinger and Hans Dieplinger

Section 2 : Diagnosis of Lipoprotein Disorders .

   3 The Importance of Lipid and Lipoprote 
in Ratios in Interpretetions of Hyperlipidaemia of Pregnancy 47 D.S. Mshelia and A.A. Kullima

  4 A Non-Atherogenic and Atherogenic 
Lipoprotein Profile in Individuals with Dyslipoproteinemia 73 Stanislav Oravec, Johannes Mikl, Kristina Gruber and Elisabeth Dostal

  5 The apoB/apoA-I Ratio is 
a Strong Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk 95 Göran Walldius

   6 Approaches to Access Biological Data Sources 149 Assia Rharbi, Khadija Amine, Zohra Bakkoury, Afaf Mikou, Anass Kettani andAbdelkader Betari

Section 3 : Hyper- and Dyslipoproteinemias .

  7 Lipoproteins Impact 
Increasing Cardiovascular Mortality 173 Jelena Umbrasiene, Ruta-Marija Babarskiene and Jone Vencloviene

  8 Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Diseases 197 
Adebowale Saba and Olayinka Oridupa

  9 Linking the Pathobiology of Hypercholesterolemia with the Neutrophil Mechanotransduction 223 Xiaoyan Zhang and Hainsworth Y. Shin

Section 4 : Management of Hyper and Dyslipoproteinemias .

  10 The Confounding Factor of Apolipoprotein E 
on Response to Chemotherapy and Hormone Regulation Altering Long-Term Cognition Outcomes 255 Summer F. Acevedo

  11 Anticholesterolemic and Antiatherogenic Effects 
of Taurine Supplementation is Model Dependent 269 Karl-Erik Eilertsen, Rune Larsen, Hanne K. Mæhre, Ida-Johanne Jensen and Edel O. Elvevoll

  12 Endoscopic Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome 289 
Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura, Ivan Roberto Bonotto Orso, Bruno da Costa Martins and Guilherme Sauniti Lopes

  13 Nutritional Management of Disturbances 
in Lipoprotein Concentrations 303 Somayeh Hosseinpour-Niazi, Parvin Mirmiran and Fereidoun Azizi

  14 Cyclosporin A-Induced Hyperlipidemia 337 
Maaike Kockx and Leonard Kritharides

  15 Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins of the Ageing Eye 355 Edward Loane

Section 5 : Lipid Oxidation and Anti-Oxidants .

  16 Pathophysiology of Lipoprotein Oxidation 383 
Vikram Jairam, Koji Uchida and Vasanthy Narayanaswami

Chapter 17 Oxidized Phospholipids: 
Introduction and Biological Significance 409 Mohammad Z. Ashraf and Swati Srivastava

  18 HDL-Associated Paraoxonase 1 Gene Polymorphisms 
as a Genetic Markers for Wide Spread Diseases 431 Ivana Pejin-Grubiša

  19 Antioxidant Complexes and Lipoprotein Metabolism – 
Experience of Grape Extracts Application Under Metabolic Syndrome and Neurogenic Stress 445 Andriy L. Zagayko, Anna B. Kravchenko, Mykhaylo V. Voloshchenko and Oxana A. Krasilnikova

  20 The Anti-Atherogenic Effects of Lycopene 489 
Amany M. M. Basuny

Section 6 : Animal Models for Lipoprotein Research .

  21 Animal Models as Tools for Translational Research: 
Focus on Atherosclerosis, Metabolic Syndrome and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus 509 Isaac Karimi

  22 Genetically Modified Animal Models 
for Lipoprotein Research 533 Masashi Shiomi, Tomonari Koike and Tatsuro Ishida

Section 7 : Role of Lipoproteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases .

  23 Plasma Lipoproteins in Brain Inflammatory 
and Neurodegenerative Diseases 563 Armando Sena, Carlos Capela, Camila Nóbrega, Véronique Férret-Sena, Elisa Campos and Rui Pedrosa

  24 Genetics of Ischemic Stroke: 
Emphasis on Candidate-Gene Association Studies 583 Sanja Stankovic, Milika Asanin and Nada Majkic-Singh

  25 Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins 
in Alzheimer's Disease 613 Etsuro Matsubara

Section 8 : Lipoproteins and Cancer .

  26 Lipoproteins and Cancer 623 
Caryl J. Antalis and Kimberly K. Buhman 

  27 Role of Lipoproteins in Carcinogenesis and in Chemoprevention 647 Adebowale Bernard Saba and Temitayo Ajibade

  28 Structural Origin of ELOA Toxicity – Implication 
for HAMLET-Type Protein Complexes with Oleic Acid 663 Vladana Vukojević and Ludmilla A. Morozova-Roche

Section 9 : Lipoproteins in Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases .

  29 Adiponectin: A Perspective Adipose Tissue Marker 
with Antiinflammatory and Antiaterogenic Potencial 677 Dalibor Novotný, Helena Vaverková and David Karásek

  30 Dyslipoproteinemia in Chronic HCV Infection 701 
Yoshio Aizawa, Hiroshi Abe, Kai Yoshizawa, Haruya Ishiguro, Yuta Aida, Noritomo Shimada and Akihito Tsubota

Section 10 : Lipoproteins and Hemostasis .

  31 An Apolipoprotein CIII-Derived Peptide, Hatktak, 
Activates Macromolecular Activators of Phagocytosis from Platelets (MAPPs) 721 Haruhiko Sakamoto, Masaki Ueno, Wu Bin, Yumiko Nagai, Kouichi Matsumoto, Takao Yamanaka and Sumiko Tanaka

  32 Lipoprotein (a) – An Overview 741 
Anna Gries .

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Published by: Unknown - Friday, February 15, 2013


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