Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Taner Demirer .

594 pages . 
Open Access .
This book documents the increased number of stem cell-related research, clinical applications, and views for the future. The book covers a wide range of issues in cellbased therapy and regenerative medicine, and includes clinical and preclinical chapters from the respected authors involved with stem cell studies and research from around the world. It complements and extends the basics of stem cell physiology, hematopoietic stem cells, issues related to clinical problems, tissue typing, cryopreservation, dendritic cells, mesenchymal cells, neuroscience, endovascular cells and other tissues. In addition, tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells is explored. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and this book is well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.
This book will be the the main source for clinical and preclinical publications for scientists working toward cell transplantation therapies with the goal of replacing diseased cells with donor cells of various organs, and transplanting those cells close to the injured or diseased target. With the increased number of publications related to stem cells and Cell Transplantation, we feel it is important to take this opportunity to share these new developments and innovations describing stem cell research in the cell transplantation field with our worldwide readers.
Stem cells have a unique ability. They are able to self renew with no limit, allowing them to replenish themselves, as well as other cells. Another ability of stem cells is that they are able to differentiate to any cell type. A stem cell does not differentiate directly to a specialized cell however- there are often multiple intermediate stages. A stem cell will first differentiate to a progenitor cell. A progenitor cell is similar to a stem cell, although they are limited in the number of times they can replicate, and they are also restricted in which cells they can further differentiate to. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit in order to replenish other cells for the rest of the person or animal's natural life. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell, or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.
Because of the unique abilities of stem cells, as opposed to a typical somatic cell, they are currently the target of ongoing research. Research on stem cells is advancing in the knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease such as diabetes or heart disease. It is often referred to as regenerative medicine or reparative medicine.
During this last decade, the number of published articles or books investigating the role of stem cells in cell transplantation or regenerative medicine increased remarkably across all sections of the stem cell related journals. The largest number of stem cell articles was published mainly in the field of neuroscience, followed by the bone, muscle, cartilage, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, in recent years, the number of stem cell articles describing the potential use of stem cell therapy and islet transplantation in diabetes is also slowly increasing, even though this field of endeavor could have one of the greatest clinical and societal impacts. Stem cells could have the potential to diminish the problem of the availability of transplantable organs that, today, limits the number of successful large-scale organ replacements. Several different methods using stem cells are currently used, but there are still several obstacles that need to be resolved before attempting to use stem cells in the clinic. Regarding the transplantation of differentiated cells derived from stem cells, one can argue that there are several regulatory, scientific, and technical issues, such as cell manufacturing procedures, regulatory mechanisms for differentiation, and developing screening methods to avoid developing inappropriate differentiated cells.
One of the next steps in stem cell therapy is the development of treatments that will function not only at an early stage of transplantation, but will also remain intact throughout the life of the host recipient.
It will be exciting and interesting for our readers to follow the recent developments in the field of stem cells and cell transplantation, via this book, such as authors’ search for the clues to what pathways are used by stem cells to repair tissue, or what can trigger wound healing, bone growth, and brain repair. Although we are close to finding pathways for stem cell therapies in many medical conditions, scientists need to be careful how they use stem cells ethically, and should not rush into clinical trials without carefully investigating the side effects. Focus must be on Good Manufacturing Procedures (GMP) and careful monitoring of the long-term effects of transplanted stem cells in the host.
In conclusion, Cell Transplantation is bridging cell transplantation research in a multitude of disease models as methods and technology continue to be refined. The use of stem cells in many therapeutic areas will bring hope to many patients awaiting replacement of malfunctioning organs, or repairing of damaged tissues.
We hope that this book will be an important tool and reference guide for all scientists worldwide who work in the field of stem cells and cell transplantation. Additionally, we hope that it will shed a light upon many important debatable issues in this field.
I would like to thank all authors who contributed this book with excellent up to date chapters relaying the recent developments in the field of stem cell transplantation to our readers. I would like to give special thanks to Masa Vidovic, Publishing Process Manager, and all InTech workers for their valuable contribution in order to make this book available.

Taner Demirer, MD, FACP
Professor of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology
Dept. of Hematology
Ankara University Medical School


Part 1 Basic Aspects of Stem Cell Transplantation .

  1 Generation of Patient Specific Stem Cells: 
A Human Model System 3 Stina Simonsson, Cecilia Borestrom and Julia Asp

  2 Importance of Non-HLA Gene Polymorphisms in 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 25 Jeane Visentainer and Ana Sell

  3 Relevance of HLA Expression Variants in 
Stem Cell Transplantation 39 Britta Eiz-Vesper and Rainer Blasczyk

  4 The T-Cells’ Role in Antileukemic Reactions - 
Perspectives for Future Therapies’ 59 Helga Maria Schmetzer and Christoph Schmid

  5 Determination of Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokines in 
Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 83 Adriana Gutiérrez-Hoya, Rubén López-Santiago, Jorge Vela-Ojeda, Laura Montiel-Cervantes, Octavio Rodríguez-Cortes and Martha Moreno-Lafont

  6 Licensed to Kill: Towards Natural Killer 
Cell Immunotherapy 103 Diana N. Eissens, Arnold van der Meer and Irma Joosten

  7 Dendritic Cells in Hematopoietic Stem 
Cell Transplantation 127 Yannick Willemen, Khadija Guerti, Herman Goossens, Zwi Berneman, Viggo Van Tendeloo and Evelien Smits

  8 Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Immunomodulators in Transplantation 143 Nadia Zghoul, Mahmoud Aljurf and Said Dermime

  9 Endovascular Methods for Stem Cell Transplantation 159 
Johan Lundberg and Staffan Holmin

 r 10 Dynamic Relationships of Collagen Extracellular 
Matrices on Cardiac Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells 183 Pearly Yong, Ling Qian, YingYing Chung and Winston Shim

Part 2 Clinical Aspects of Stem Cell Transplantation .

  11 Sources of Hematopoietic Stem Cells 199 
Piotr Rzepecki, Sylwia Oborska and Krzysztof Gawroński

  12 Cryopreservation of Hematopoietic and Non-Hematopoietic 
Stem Cells – A Review for the Clinician 231 David Berz and Gerald Colvin

  13 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for 
Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia 267 Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Stefania Paolini, Francesca Bonifazi, Giuseppe Bandini, Giuseppe Visani and Sebastian Giebel

  14 Treatment Options in Myelodysplastic Syndromes 289 Klara Gadó and Gyula Domján

  15 Mantle Cell Lymphoma: 
Decision Making for Transplant 319 Yener Koc and Taner Demirer

  16 Autologous Peripheral Blood Purified Stem 
Cells Transplantation for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 345 Ledong Sun and Bing Wang

  17 Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria 355 Markiewicz Miroslaw, Koclega Anna, Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka Malgorzata, Dzierzak-Mietla Monika, Zielinska Patrycja, Frankiewicz Andrzej, Bialas Krzysztof and Kyrcz-Krzemien Slawomira

  18 Intensified Chemotherapy with Stem Cell Support for 
Solid Tumors in Adults: 30 Years of Investigations Can Provide Some Clear Answers? 371 Paolo Pedrazzoli, Giovanni Rosti, Simona Secondino, Marco Bregni and Taner Demirer

  19 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
for Malignant Solid Tumors in Children 381 Toshihisa Tsuruta

  20 Stem Cells in Ophthalmology 405 
Sara T. Wester and Jeffrey Goldberg

  21 Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation and Corneal Neovascularization 443 Kishore Reddy Katikireddy and Jurkunas V. Ula

  22 Bone Marrow Stromal Cells for Repair 
of the Injured Spinal Cord 471 D. S. Nandoe Tewarie Rishi, Oudega Martin and J. Ritfeld Gaby

  23 What Do We Know About the Detailed Mechanism on How Stem Cells Generate Their Mode of Action 495
 Peter Riess and Marek Molcanyi

  24 Autologous Stem Cell Infusion 
for Treatment of Pulmonary Disease 505 Neal M. Patel and Charles D. Burger

  25 Neurologic Sequealae of Hematopoietic Stem 
Cell Transplantation (HSCT) 517 Ami J. Shah, Tena Rosser and Fariba Goodarzian

  26 Adenoviral Infection – Common Complication Following 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 533
Iwona Bil-Lula, Marek Ussowicz and Mieczysław Woźniak

   27 A Systematic Review of Nonpharmacological Exercise-Based 
Rehabilitative Interventions in Adults Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 557 M. Jarden .

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Published by: Unknown - Monday, February 4, 2013


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