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TEXTBOOK : EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS – BASIC BIOLOGY TO BIOENGINEERING

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

Edited by Michael S. Kallos .

490 pages .

Open Access .

The isolation and culture of human embryonic stem cells by Thomson in the late 1990s has accelerated a paradigm shift in medicine that was started much earlier by Till and McCulloch in the early 1960s with the discovery of the first stem cells in mice. The burgeoning field of regenerative medicine will ultimately transform modern human health care from a molecule‐based focus, which serves to alleviate symptoms, to a cell and tissue based focus which has the promise of actually restoring function. Although the potential is enormous, the road is long and there are certainly many milestones along the way. This book, Embryonic Stem Cells ‐ Basic Biology to Bioengineering and its companion, Embryonic Stem Cells ‐ Differentiation and Pluripotent Alternatives, serve as a snapshot of many of the activities currently underway on a number of different fronts. This book is divided into five parts and provides a foundation upon which future therapies and uses of embryonic stem cells can be built.
Part 1: Challenges and Possibilities ‐ From New Cell Lines to Alternative Uses of Cryopreserved Embryos
Chapters 1‐3 offer a broad overview of some of the challenges in bringing embryonic  stem cell based medicine to the clinic, as well as a case study of the derivation of new embryonic stem cell lines, and an alternative to the use of cryopreserved embryos.
Part 2: Methods, Tools and Technologies for Embryonic Stem Cell Culture, Manipulation and Clinical Application
Chapters 4‐10 present a wide variety of tools and technologies ranging from largescale bioreactors to scaled‐down bioreactor arrays and synthetic surfaces that can be used for embryonic stem cell culture. In addition, methods for introducing foreign genes into embryonic stem cells and controlling gene expression are described. Lastly, the use of imaging is presented as a tool to measure pluripotency and early  differentiation.
Part 3: Applications of Embryonic Stem Cells in Research and Development
Chapters 11‐13 present methods to generate chimeric mice for use in research, and in addition, describe the use of embryonic stem cells in toxicological studies and the use of teratomas derived from embryonic stem cells as models for early development, disease, and tumorigenesis.
Part 4: Pluripotency and Molecular Biology of Embryonic Stem Cells
Chapters 14‐20 describe our understanding of pluripotency as well as some of the key molecules involved in regulating not only pluripotency but cancer and early embryonic tissues.
Part 5: Lessons from Development
Chapters 21‐23 examine the knowledge we have gained from studying embryonic germ cells and pluripotent gametogenic stem cells of asexually reproducing invertebrates.In the book Embryonic Stem Cells ‐ Differentiation and Pluripotent Alternatives, the story continues with a sample of some of the studies currently under way to derive neural, cardiac, endothelial, hepatic and osteogenic lineages. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells are introduced and other unique sources of pluripotent stem cells are explored.
I would like to thank all of the authors for their valuable contributions. I would also  like to thank Megan Hunt who provided me with much needed assistance and acted as a sounding board for early chapter selection, and the staff at InTech, particularly Romina Krebel who answered all of my questions and kept me on track during the entire process.




Michael S. Kallos
Pharmaceutical Production Research Facility (PPRF),
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta
Canada
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,

Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta,
Canada
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CONTENTS :


Part 1 of the textbook : Challenges and Possibilities – From New Cell Lines to Alternative Uses of Cryopreserved Embryos .


  1 Embryonic Stem Cells for Therapies –Challenges and Possibilities 3  Ronne Wee Yeh Yeo and Sai Kiang Lim

  2 Derivation and Characterization of New hESC Linesfrom Supernumerary Embryos, Experience from Turkey 19  Zafer Nihat Candan and Semra Kahraman

  3 Cryopreserved Embryos: A Catholic Alternativeto Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Adoption 33  Peter A. Clark

Part 2 of the textbook : Methods, Tools and Technologies for Embryonic Stem Cell Culture, Manipulation and Clinical Application .


  4 Bioprocess Developmentfor the Expansion of Embryonic Stem Cells 49  Megan M. Hunt, Roz Alfred, Derrick E. Rancourt,  
Ian D. Gates and Michael S. Kallos

  5 Small-Scale Bioreactorsfor the Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells 73  Allison Van Winkle, Ian D. Gates and Michael S. Kallos

  6 Synthetic Surfacesfor Human Embryonic Stem Cell Culture 89  Andrei G. Fadeev and Zara Melkoumian

  7 Efficient Integration of Transgenes and Their ReliableExpression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells 105  Kenji Sakurai, Miho Shimoji, Kazuhiro Aiba and Norio Nakatsuji

  8 Embryonic Stem Cells: Introducing ExogenousRegulators into Embryonic Stem Cells 123  Yong-Pil Cheon

  9 Functional Control of Target Single Cells in ES Cell Clustersand Their Differentiated Cells by Femtoinjection 149 
Hideaki Matsuoka, Mikako Saito and Hisakage Funabashi


  10 From Pluripotency to Early Differentiationof Human Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures Evaluated

by Electron Microscopy and Immunohistochemistry 171  Janus Valentin Jacobsen, Claus Yding Andersen,  
Poul Hyttel and Kjeld Møllgård


Part 3 of the textbook : Applications of Embryonic Stem Cells in Research and Development .


  11 Methods to Generate Chimeric Micefrom Embryonic Stem Cells 193  Kun-Hsiung Lee

  12 Embryonic Stem Cells in Toxicological Studies 213 Carmen Estevan, Andrea C. Romero, David Pamies,  Eugenio Vilanova and Miguel A. Sogorb

  13 Teratomas Derived from Embryonic Stem Cellsas Models for Embryonic Development,  Disease, and Tumorigenesis 231  John A. Ozolek and Carlos A. Castro

Part 4 of the textbook : Pluripotency and Molecular Biology of Embryonic Stem Cells .


  14 Illuminating Hidden Features of Stem Cells 265 Gideon Grafi, Rivka Ofir, Vered Chalifa-Caspi and Inbar Plaschkes


   15 Signaling Pathways in Mouse  Embryo Stem Cell Self-Renewal 283  Leo Quinlan

  16 Building a Pluripotency Protein InteractionNetwork for Embryonic Stem Cells 305  Patricia Ng and Thomas Lufkin

  17 Profile of Galanin in Embryonic Stem Cells and Tissues 321 Maria-Elena Lautatzis and Maria Vrontakis

  18 Rho-GTPases in Embryonic Stem Cells 333 Michael S. Samuel and Michael F. Olson

  19 Cripto-1: At the Crossroadsof Embryonic Stem Cells and Cancer 347  Nadia Pereira Castro, Maria Cristina Rangel, Tadahiro Nagaoka,  
Hideaki Karasawa, David S. Salomon and Caterina Bianco


  20 Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pluripotencyand Lineage Commitment – The Role of GSK-3 369  Bradley W. Doble, Kevin F. Kelly and James R. Woodgett

Part 5 of the textbook : Lessons from Development .


Chapter 21 Embryonic Stem Cells and the Germ Cell Lineage 391 Cyril Ramathal, Renee Reijo Pera and Paul Turek


Chapter 22 Techniques and Conditions  for Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation and Culture 425  Maria P De Miguel, Candace L Kerr,  Pilar López-Iglesias and Yago Alcaina

Chapter 23 Pluripotent Gametogenic Stem Cellsof Asexually Reproducing Invertebrates 449  Valeria V. Isaeva .




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