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TEXTBOOK : EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS - RECENT ADVANCES IN PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL - BASED REGENERATIVE MEDICINE

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
Edited by Craig S. Atwood .
412 pages . 

The hope that one day human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be utilized for the 
treatment of various diseases has swept throughout the world since the isolation and 
in vitro maintenance of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) just before the end of 
the last millennium (Thomson et al. 1998). Contrasting with this tremendous hope of 
hESCs for regenerative medicine and continued mortality lies the moral issues related 
to the use of pluripotent ESCs obtained from the discarded embryos of in vitro fertilization 
(the termination of life). In the fi rst section of this book, ‘Clinical Applications 
and Ethical Considerations’ the fi rst chapter by Malgieri et al. highlights the potential 
for stem cell technologies, including hESC technologies, in regenerative medicine. The 
second chapter by Birnbacher delves into the complex bioethical and biopolitical issues 
of using hESCs for basic and applied applications. Birnbacher provides a thoughtful 
and in depth assessment of complicity- the role of scientists as accomplices in the 
propagation of a “wrong doing”. As Birnbacher points out, the wrong doing is not so 
much the use of ESCs, themselves not human embryos, “but moral concerns as to the 
source from which the stem cells are derived and the methods by which they are retrieved 
(or the life terminated).” As the authors continue, “Complicity is the core of the 
criticism levelled against research on pluripotent hESC in many quarters and has even, 
in some countries, become the basis of legal prohibitions. Complicity is a problem only 
for those who are torn between the conviction that embryo research is (for intrinsic or 
extrinsic reasons) a moral evil and the conviction that hESC research is worth pursuing 
either for its medical or for its scientifi c prospects or both. The class most likely to 
face this uncomfortable dilemma is the class of conservative politicians in countries 
such as Germany and Italy in which embryo research is strictly prohibited by law, but 
in which hESC research is nevertheless permitt ed or even encouraged, although only 
with raw material imported from countries with more permissive laws. For these politicians, 
complicity is, and should be, the stumbling block lying in the way of pragmatic 
compromise”.
The potential for using PSCs (e.g. hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for 
specifi c diseases and conditions is reviewed in the next 16 chapters. Heart disease is 
the biggest killer in the Western world (USA - 26% of all deaths), and in the next section, 
‘Tissue-specifi c Regeneration of the Heart’, Hao et al. examine the possibility of 
one day engineering autologous replacement cardiomyocytes via iPSCs, and review 
the small molecules that to date direct diff erentiation of stem cells down the cardiomyogenic 
pathway. Sasaki and Okano next discuss the advantages and disadvantages 
of diff erent methods for the generation of cardiomyocytes from ESCs – namely the 
hanging drop method, suspension culture method and the cell-patt erning method 
They end their chapter with a discussion of the cell sheet method for transplantation of
cardiomyocytes into the patient ....

Craig S. Atwood
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center,
Veterans Administration Hospital,
Department of Medicine,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53705, USA

CONTENTS :

Part 1 Clinical Applications and Ethical Considerations .


Chapter 1 The Role of Complicity in the Ethics 
of Embryonic Stem Cell Research 3
Dieter Birnbacher

Chapter 2 Potential Clinical Applications of Embryonic Stem Cells 21
Arianna Malgieri, Giuseppe Novelli and Federica Sangiuolo

Part 2 Tissue-specific Regeneration of the Heart .


Chapter 3Chemical Biology of Pluripotent Stem Cells: 
Focus on Cardiomyogenesis 51
Jijun Hao, Li Zhou and Charles C. Hong

Chapter 4 Cardiac Differentiation of Embryonic 
Stem Cells by Patterning Culture 65
Daisuke Sasaki and Teruo Okano

Part 3 Tissue-specific Regeneration of the Brain and Sensory Organs .


Chapter 5 Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Multipotent 
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy Following Focal Ischemia in the Rat 83
Gregory C. Kujoth and Mustafa K. Başkaya

Chapter 6 Embryonic Stem Cell in the Therapy 
of Neurodegenerative Diseases 105
Xiaotang Fan, Yongping Tang, Kai Wang, Xiang Cui, Shiqi Tao and Haiwei Xu

Chapter 7 Engineering Therapeutic Neural Stem Cell 
Lines for Parkinson’s Disease 137
Marcel M. Daadi

Chapter 8 Embryonic Stem Cells Overexpressing 
the Recognition Molecules L1 and Tenascin-R
Enhance Regeneration in Mouse Models of Acute and Chronic Neurological Disorders 149
Gunnar Hargus and Christian Bernreuther

Chapter 9 Perspectives of Stem Cell-Derived 
Microglia for Medicine 171
Kristin Roy, Clara Beutner and Harald Neumann

Chapter 10 Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons 
for Inner Ear Therapy 189
Eri Hashino and Michael H Fritsch

Chapter 11 Potential of Pluripotent Stem Cells 
for the Replacement of Inner Ears 203
Koji Nishimura, Takayuki Nakagawa and Juichi Ito

Chapter 12 Stem Cells and the Retina – 
Challenges for Regenerative Medicine 211
Andrea Messina, Simona Casarosa and Elisa Murenu

Part 4 Tissue-specific Regeneration of Hematopoietic Systems .


Chapter 13 Generation of Blood Cells from Human Embryonic 
Stem Cells and Their Possible Clinical Utilization 239
Feng MA, Wenyu Yang, Yasuhiro Ebihara and Kohichiro Tsuji

Chapter 14 Hematopoietic Differentiation 
from Embryonic Stem Cells 251
Yasuhisa Yokoyama, Hidekazu Nishikii and Shigeru Chiba

Chapter 15 ES Cell-derived Erythroid Cell Lines Able 
to Produce Mature Red Blood Cells 273
Yukio Nakamura

Part 5 Tissue-specific Regeneration of Other Tissues .


Chapter 16 Differentiation of Hepatocytes 
from Mice Embryonic Stem Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture System Imitating in vivo Environment 291
Tetsuya Imamura

Chapter 17 Rejuvenation of the Thymic Microenvironment 
by ESC-derived Thymic Epithelial Progenitors 301
Laijun Lai

Chapter 18 Actual Achievements on Germ Cells 
and Gametes Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells 311
Irina Kerkis, Camilla M. Mendes, Simone A. S. da Fonseca, Nelson F. Lizier, Rui C. Serafim and Alexandre Kerkis

Part 6 Side Effects of Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies .


Chapter 19 Self-Renewal, Pluripotency and Tumorigenesis 
in Pluripotent Stem Cells Revisited 339
Yanzhen Li and Tetsuya S. Tanaka

Chapter 20 Embryonic and Cancer Stem Cells 
- two views of the same landscape 359
Unai Silván, Alejandro Díez-Torre, Lucía Jiménez-Rojo and Juan Aréchaga

Chapter 21 Genome Stability in Embryonic Stem Cells 387
Paola Rebuzzini, Maurizio Zuccotti, Carlo Alberto Redi and Silvia Garagna .


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