Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Craig S. Atwood .
688 pages .

The human zygote possesses the ability to diff erentiate into all tissues of the body. The 
recombination of genetic material within the ovum and its cytoplasmic contents allows 
for germ cells to form a zygote that during its initial divisions results in cells capable 
of diff erentiating into any cell type in the body. This pluripotent state of embryonic 
stem cells (ESCs) has been harnessed for various applications, such as the generation of 
knockout or transgenic animals, drug testing, toxicology and as a potential cell source 
for the derivation of functionally mature cell populations for regenerative medicine
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, which include both embryonic and induced 
pluripotent stem cells [hESCs and hiPSCs]) provide a unique model system to study 
early mammalian development, the topic of this book. In the fi rst section of this book 
“Pluripotency - Embryonic Stem Cells”, Davies and Fairchild describe the spectrum 
of stem cell types and a historical perspective on the derivation of ESC and recent 
advances in the maintenance of ESC pluripotency. Casanova et al., Koide and Yokota, 
Mezhevikina et al. and Zheng et al. follow up by reviewing the hormonal signaling 
pathways (LIF/Stat3 signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, BMP signaling, and FGF signaling), 
downstream transcription factors, and biomaterials that have been identifi ed 
as important in regulating pluripotency in mouse ESC. With respect to this last point, it 
is becoming well recognized that cell surface proteins are important regulators of ESC 
fate. Nishihara review the role of glycoproteins (proteoglycans) and glycolipids for the 
maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency, and diff erentiation, of ESC. Heparan 
sulfate and chondroitin sulfate regulate the extrinsic signaling by BMP, Wnt and FGF 
that inhibits or is required for diff erentiation. Hawkins and Ward discuss the specifi c 
requirement of E-cadherin in ESC pluripotency, its role in protein cell surface localization, 
signaling, transcript expression and cell survival. Kurisaki et al. next describe 
proteomic analyses that they have used to determine the nuclear protein machinery 
required for the maintenance of pluripotent stem cells. These workers identify TIF1β, 
and the Oct4-centered interactome, as important in regulating pluripotency. They also 
describe proteomics approaches for identifying cell-surface markers of PCS, a subject 
that is comprehensively covered in the chapter by Miura et al. In their chapter, the authors 
describe traditional transcriptional factor (transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and 
Nanog) biomarkers of PCS as well as cell surface antigen biomarkers such as CD9 and 
the need for new biomarkers that function in the regulation of pluripotency....

Craig S. Atwood
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center
Veterans Administration Hospital
Department of Medicine
University of Wisconsin
Madison, USA


Part 1 of the textbook :  Pluripotency - Embryonic Stem Cells .

Chapter 1 Embryonic Stem Cells and the Capture of Pluripotency 3
Timothy J. Davies and Paul J. Fairchild

Chapter 2 Molecular Mechanisms of Pluripotency in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells 27
Elisa A. Casanova, Kurt Bürki and Paolo Cinelli

Chapter 3 LIF/STAT3 Pathway in ES Cell Self-renewal 61
Hiroshi Koide and Takashi Yokota

Chapter 4 Effects of Recombinant Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) 
on Functional Status of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells 79
Ludmila M. Mezhevikina, Raushaniya R. Petrova, Marina P. Borisova, Olga Yu. Seraya and E.E. Fesenko

Chapter 5 Maintaining Embryonic Stem Cells 
and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 91
Qiang-Sun Zheng, Dong-Bo Ou, Xiong-Tao Liu and Jing-Jing Guo

Chapter 6 The Function of Glycan Structures 
for the Maintenance and Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells 101
Shoko Nishihara

Chapter 7 The Function of E-cadherin in ES Cell Pluripotency 125
Kate Hawkins and Christopher M Ward

Chapter 8 Proteomic Analysis of Mouse ES Cells 143
Akira Kurisaki, Yasuhiro Seki and Atsushi Intoh

Chapter 9 Molecular Biomarkers 
of Embryonic Stem Cells 159
Takumi Miura, Akihiro Umezawa and Hidenori Akutsu

Chapter 10 Target Identification of MicroRNAs Expressed Highly and 
Regulated by Activin A in Human Embryonic Stem Cells 173
Steven Shoei-Lung Li

Chapter 11 Smads – the Intracellular Hubs of Signalling in Regulation 
of Pluripotency and Differentiation of Stem Cells 191
Dmitry A. Ovchinnikov and Ernst J. Wolvetang

Chapter 12 Determination and Regulation 
of ‘Stemness’ by MicroRNAs 217
Kye-Seong Kim and Jaesang Kim

Part 2 of the textbook :   Hormonal Signals that Regulate Early Embryogenesis .

Chapter 13 Dynamic Changes in Gene Expression 
during Early Trophoblast Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Treated with BMP4 235
Toshihiko Ezashi, Bhanu Prakash V.L. Telugu and R. Michael Roberts

Chapter 14 Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Model System 
for Delineating the Molecular Basis of Human Embryogenesis and Aging-related Diseases 251
Craig S. Atwood and Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal

Chapter 15 Directed Differentiation of Mesendoderm 
Derivatives from Embryonic Stem Cells 271
Miriam Gordillo, Ritu Kumar, Harma K. Turbendian and Todd Evans

Chapter 16 BNP is a Novel Regulator 
of Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation 303
Abdelalim, EM and Tooyama, I

Chapter 17 Non-classical Signalling Mechanisms in Stem Cells 317
Alice Pébay, Hitesh Peshavariya, Raymond C.B. Wong and Gregory J Dusting

Chapter 18 Telomerase and Oxidative Stress 
in Embryonic Stem Cells 337
Gabriele Saretzki

Part 3 of the textbook :   Hormonal Signals that Regulate the Differentiation of Ectodermal Cells - Neurogenesis .

Chapter 19 Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Differentiation 
to Aldynoglia Induced by Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Cell-Conditioned Medium 365
Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, Argelia E. Rojas-Mayorquín, Antoni Camins and Mercè Pallàs

Chapter 20 Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Human Embryonic 
Stem Cell Derived Neural Progenitors: Biological Relevance and Application 383
Young, A. and Stice, S.L.

Chapter 21 Dopaminergic Differentiation Potential of Neural 
Precursor Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells 413
Gilda Guerrero-Flores and Luis Covarrubias

Chapter 22 A Rational Approach to Inducing Neuronal 
Differentiation in Embryonic Stem Cells 429
Tadahide Furuno and Mamoru Nakanishi

Part 4 of the textbook :   Hormonal Signals that Regulate the Differentiation of Mesodermal Cells - Cardiogenesis, Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis .

Chapter 23 ESC Cardiac Differentiation and Applications 447
Nasser Aghami and Hananeh Fonoudi

Chapter 24 Chemicals Regulating Cardiomyocyte Differentiation 471
Hideki Uosaki and Jun K Yamashita

Chapter 25 Embryonic Stem Cells as a Model System to Elucidate Early 
Events in Cardiac Specification and Determination 487
Gabriella Minchiotti, Cristina D’Aniello, Roberto Ronca, Laura Gualandi and Patrizia Dell’Era

Chapter 26 Differentiation, Characterization and Applications of 
Human Embryonic Stem Cell –Derived Cardiomyocytes 505
Mari Pekkanen-Mattila, Erja Kerkelä and Katriina Aalto-Setälä

Chapter 27 Recent Advances in Controlling Cardiacmyoctye 
Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells 523
Dong-Bo Ou, Qiang-Sun Zheng, Yong He, Di Zeng and Ji-Wei Teng

Chapter 28 Oxytocin as an Inducer of Cardiomyogenesis 537
Jolanta Gutkowska and Marek Jankowski

Chapter 29 Impact of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive 
Nitrogen Species for Stem Cell Mobilization, Function and Cardiovascular Differentiation 557
Heinrich Sauer and Maria Wartenberg

Chapter 30 ES Cell Differentiation as a Model to Study Cell 
Biological Regulation of Vascular Development 581
Kiyomi Tsuji-Tamura, Hiroshi Sakamoto and Minetaro Ogawa
Chapter 31 Direct Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells toward Osteoblasts and Chondrocytes through an Intermediate Mesenchyme Progenitor Lineage 607
Basem M. Abdallah, Linda Harkness, Amer Mahmood and Moustapha Kassem

Chapter 32 From Pluripotent Stem Cells to Lineage-Specific 
Chondrocytes: Essential Signalling
and Cellular Intermediates 621
Naoki Nakayama and Katsutsugu Umeda

Chapter 33 Derivation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells 
from Human Embryonic Stem Cells 649
Shelley E. Brown and Paul H. Krebsbach

Part 5 of the textbook :   Hormonal Signals that Regulate the Differentiation of Endodermal Cells - Thymogenesis .

Chapter 34 Generation of Thyrocytes from Embryonic Stem Cells 663
Reigh-Yi Lin .

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Published by: Unknown - Monday, February 4, 2013


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