Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Shevach Friedler . 
168 pages .

No doubt that one of the major advancements in the field of medicine in the last 
millennium, include the introduction of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, to 
alleviate female and male infertility. Prof. Robert Edwards, the 2010 Nobel laureate in 
medicine represents this field. Cambridge physiologist Prof Edwards, now 85, and the 
late Patrick Steptoe, a gynecologic surgeon, developed IVF technology in which 
oocytes are fertilized outside the body and implanted in the uterine cavity. The 
groundbreaking work led to the birth of the world's first test tube baby, Louise Brown, 
in 1978. Today this technology has affected the lives of millions of infertile patients.
The pioneering and inspirational work that started in the early '60s led to a 
breakthrough that has enhanced the lives of millions of people worldwide resulting in 
the birth of more than 3 million babies.
Since then, there was not a dull moment in the advancements and developments in 
this field. Mentioning just a few, includes embryo cryopreservation, a technology that 
allows preservation of surplus embryos, to be used after the fresh cycle, reducing the 
need of the patients to undergo another cycle of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation 
and oocyte retrieval, oocyte cryopreservation enabling to revolutionize the field of egg 
donation which enables women without fertilizable oocytes to fulfill their wish for 
conception and delivery. The introduction of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection 
revolutionized the treatment possibilities of male infertile patients allowing patients
suffering from severe OTA and even azoospermia, to father a child. Although the field 
of ART exists now for more than three decades, in many of its practical aspects there is 
no consensus and continuing basic and clinical research relevant to the various aspects 
of this field contribute to its improvement.
Presently, the basic routines that IVF-ET treatments are well known to those involved 
in the field of reproductive medicine. In this book we present a variety of chapters 
expressing new and exciting data relevant to various aspects of this field, indicating 
the vast potential of innovations in the variable parts that comprise the puzzle of this 
treatment's methodology.
The first chapter relates to new aspects of the treatment protocols used for COH for 
IVF, specifically considering the role of low dose hCG in the late follicular phase of 
COH protocol. In the following chapter light is shed upon the importance of 
premature progesterone rise during COH, investigating the endometrial gene 
expression affected by it that may lead to impairment of uterine receptivity. The 
improvements in the instrumentation and technical ability of the new ultrasound 
machinery had a serious impact on the role of ultrasound in the evaluation of uterine
receptivity as well as establishing the new standard of guided embryo transfer. This 
will be presented in our third chapter. In our fourth chapter we present a current 
update on the variable methods of sperm selection for IVF, including the newest ideas 
in this expertise. Current data indicate the importance of the preimplantation 
development of embryos, that may affect not only their implantation potential but also 
their health during their lifespan. Using in vitro fertilized bovine embryos as a 
mammalian model, the fifth chapter presents some histone modifications marks 
observed during embryonic genomic activation and how their monitoring can provide
useful information about early embryo development. IVF offers hope to couples and 
women who might not otherwise achieve pregnancy, but there are risks which are not 
elucidated yet. The sixth chapter presents insights from gene expression studies 
during preimpantation development , essential for the evaluation of IVF safety. In our 
seventh chapter we present an overview on one of the newest advancement in the 
field of IVF. Namely, the introduction of oocyte cryopreservation by vitrification, is a 
methodology that may revolutionize the field of oocyte donation and fertility potential 
preservation. A concise overview regarding current knowledge of Preimplantation 
genetic testing is presented in our last chapter, presenting the current technique of 
PGD and PGS as well as and its future prospects using cutting edge genomic 
technologies allowing to prevent inherited genetic disorders.
This book is a result of collaborative work of an international group of professionals 
dedicated to contribute to the advancement of our knowledge that invested their time 
and effort in contributing their chapters. We hope that this book, presenting current 
new aspects pertaining to the variable aspects of the steps leading to a more effective 
and safer IVF, will have the ability to challenge and satisfy the curiosity of the variable 
potential readers seeking to enrich their knowledge in the challenging field of IVF.

Prof. Shevach Friedler
The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv,


Part 1 of the textbook : Innovative Clinical Aspects of IVF .

Chapter 1 The Role of Low-Dose hCG in 
the Late Follicular Phase of Controlled Ovarian Hyper Stimulation (COH) Protocols 3
Mahnaz Ashrafi and Kiandokht Kiani

Chapter 2 Gene Expression and Premature Progesterone Rise 15
Inge Van Vaerenbergh and Christophe Blockeel

Chapter 3 The Role of Ultrasound in 
the Evaluation of Endometrial Receptivity Following Assisted Reproductive Treatments 31
Mitko Ivanovski

Part 2 of the textbook : Innovative Laboratory Aspects of IVF, Present and Future Techniques .

Chapter 4 Methods for Sperm 
Selection for In Vitro Fertilization 71
Nicolás M. Ortega and Pablo Bosch

Chapter 5 Analysis of Permissive and Repressive Chromatin 
Markers in In Vitro Fertilized Bovine Embryos Just After Embryonic Genome Activation 87
Clara Slade Oliveira, Naiara Zoccal Saraiva, Letícia Zoccolaro Oliveira and Joaquim Mansano Garcia

Chapter 6 Safety in Assisted Reproductive 
Technologies: Insights from Gene Expression Studies During Preimplantation Development 103
Daniela Bebbere, Luisa Bogliolo, Federica Ariu, Irma Rosati and Sergio Ledda
Chapter 7 Third Millennium Assisted Reproductive Technologies: The Impact of Oocyte Vitrification 123
P. Boyer, P. Rodrigues, P. Tourame, M. Silva, M. Barata, J. Perez-Alzaa and M. Gervoise-Boyer

Chapter 8 Preimplantation Genetic Testing: 
Current Status and Future Prospects 137
Eduardo C. Lau, Marleen M. Janson, Carl B. Ball, Mark R. Roesler, Peter VanTuinen, David P. Bick and Estil Y. Strawn .

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Published by: Unknown - Friday, February 8, 2013


  1. Thanks for sharing the information there would be some apprehensions from segment but i am up for it....