Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Craig S. Atwood .
520 pages . 

The development of techniques to culture embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a pluripotent 
state has been crucial for the manipulation and utilization of this special cell population 
for understanding basic biological questions, as well as their use in practical applications 
such as regenerative medicine and toxicology. The fi rst mammalian ESC lines 
were derived from the mouse blastocyst 3 decades ago by two independent groups 
(Evans and Kaufman 1981; Martin 1981). The development of specifi c methods for the 
derivation and subsequent maintenance of ESCs in specifi c media conditions allowed 
enquiry into mechanisms of cell pluripotency, growth, diff erentiation, degeneration 
and regeneration, but also their practical application in toxicology. Some time later, the 
development of techniques to successfully isolate and maintain human ESCs derived 
from inner mass cells (ICM; (Bongso, et al. 1994; Thomson, et al. 1998)) opened up new 
practical applications in regenerative medicine in addition to probing basic biological 
This book draws together reviews on the historical development of techniques, and 
recent advances in, the derivation, culture, maintenance and imaging of ESCs, as well 
as reviews on recent advances in genetic manipulation and reprogramming of ESCs 
for basic biological experimentation, as well as their application for the development 
of transgenic/chimeric mice and use in toxicological and drug discovery studies. In 
the fi rst section of the book, ‘Methods for Derivation and Maintenance of Embryonic 
Stem Cell Pluripotency’, chapters by Manganelli et al. and Fagundez et al. provide an 
excellent historical overview of the technological advances that led to the successful 
maintenance of mouse and human ESCs in culture. Zhang et al. next provide detailed 
methodology for the isolation and dissociation of ICM for the derivation of ESCs, and
their culture, passage, freezing, thawing, karyotyping and diff erentiation into embryoid 
bodies (EBs) or teratoma, as well as techniques involved in chimeric mouse 
production. Techniques for the preservation of ESCs are reviewed by He and includes 
detailed descriptions of cryopreservation at cryogenic temperatures (slow-freezing, 
conventional vitrifi cation and low-cryoprotective agent vitrifi cation) prior to discussing 
lyopreservation, or dry preservation at ambient temperature by evaporative drying 
or freeze-drying. He also discusses biophysical considerations of cell preservation.
The next 5 chapters review recent advances in the development of techniques to allow 
more effi cient and scalable culture of ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
These advances have been driven in large part by the desire to eliminate non-human 
cells and materials, thereby avoiding issues including immunogenicity, complex purifi 
cation, heterogeneous environments, batch-to-batch (or source-to-source) variation 
in materials isolated from tissues, and presence of xenogenetic compounds. The 
development of these techniques has been within the constraints that ESC self-renewal 
and diff erentiation are known to be regulated via interactions with neighboring cells,
ECM components, soluble signaling factors, and the physicochemical environment. 
The development of these new technologies has allowed greater control over material 
properties and tissue responses. The fi rst of these chapters by D’Andrea Markert et 
al. describe the topographical, mechanical and chemical cues that cells receive, and 
the use of topographically and chemically modifi ed surfaces for expansion or diff erentiation 
of ECSs. Haque et al. next describe recent developments in the construction 
of novel ECM using genetically engineered adhesion molecules and growth factors 
aimed at mimicking the regulatory characteristics of natural ECM and growth factors 
in the extracellular microenvironment. Sakuragi and Ito then describe the culture of 
ESCs on chemically fi xed feeder cells, the use of synthetic biomaterials for ESC maintenance 
and EB formation and end with a description of developments in thermoresponsible
polymers that allow for temperature dependent ESC detachment. Mashayekhana 
and Miyazakib describe how cell fate is controlled by chemical modifi cations to 
the substrate, by geometric modifi cation and by modifi cation of material mechanics.
These authors end by describing strategies for culture surface design using glucosedisplaying 
dendrimer substrates to control the morphology and function of ESCs. A 
chapter on the use of novel substrates for cell culture by Wang and Zhang emphasizes 
the use of three-dimensional silk fi broin scaff olds and their application to ESC culture 
and diff erentiation .....

Craig S. Atwood
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center,
Veterans Administration Hospital,
Department of Medicine,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53705, USA


Part 1 of the textbook : Methods for Derivation and Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency 1

Chapter 1 Embryonic Stem Cells: from Blastocyst 
to in vitro Differentiation 3
Genesia Manganelli, Annalisa Fico and Stefania Filosa

Chapter 2 Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Basics from a Fertilized 
Zygote to These Promising Pluripotent Stem Cells 25
Carol Fagundez, Mónica Loresi, Stella Delcourt and Pablo Argibay

Chapter 3 Effective Derivation and Manipulation 
of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells 45
Peng Zhang, Xinglong Wu, Pengbo Wang and Xiangyun Li

Chapter 4 Artificial Acellular Feeder Layer: An Advanced 
Engineered Extracellular Matrix for Stem Cell Culture 61
Amranul Haque, Masato Nagaoka, Xiao-Shan Yue, Stephen A. Duncan and Toshihiro Akaike

Chapter 5 Biomaterials for In Vitro Expansion 
of Embryonic Stem Cells 75
Makoto Sakuragi and Yoshihiro Ito

Chapter 6 Surface Engineering 
to Control Embryonic Stem Cell Fate 93
Shohreh Mashayekhan and Jun-ichi Miyazaki

Chapter 7 Preservation of Embryonic Stem Cells 113
Xiaoming He

Chapter 8 Topographically and Chemically Modified Surfaces for 
Expansion or Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells 139
Lotte D’Andrea Markert, Jette Lovmand, Mogens Duch and Finn Skou Pedersen

Chapter 9 Directed Differentation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells 
in Combination of Biomaterials 159
Huihui Wang, Xiaojing Xu, Rong Ye and Huanxiang Zhang

Part 2 of the textbook :  Methods of Imaging Embryonic Stem Cells 171

Chapter 10 Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells 
Derived Endothelial Cells Using Reporter Genes 173
Yizhou Zheng, Deling Kong and Zongjin Li

Chapter 11 Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy 
as a Tool for Embryonic Stem Cell Studies 193
Diletta Ami, Paolo Mereghetti, Antonino Natalello and Silvia M. Doglia

Part 3 of the textbook :  Methods for Reprogramming Cells 219

Chapter 12 Reprogrammed Parthenogenetic ES Cells 
- New Choice for Regenerative Medicine 221
Takuro Horii and Izuho Hatada

Chapter 13 Reprogramming Somatic Cells by Fusion 
with Embryonic Stem Cells: Present Status and Prospects in Regenerative Medicine 237
Jinnuo Han and Kuldip S. Sidhu

Chapter 14 Use of Transposon-Transposase Systems 
for Stable Genetic Modification of Embryonic Stem Cells 259
Tamás I. Orbán, Ágota Apáti, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Zoltán Ivics and Balázs Sarkadi

Part 4 of the textbook :  Methods for Genetic Delivery, Manipulation and Assessment in Embryonic Stem Cells 275

Chapter 15 Gene Transduction Approaches 
in Human Embryonic Stem Cells 277
David Brafman and Karl Willert

Chapter 16 Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced 
from Testicular Tissue of a Man with Klinefelter Syndrome (47, XXY) by Four Transcription Factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC) 295
Hideyuki Kobayashi

Chapter 17 Application of Magnet-based Nanofection 
in Embryonic Stem Cell Research 307
Ssang-Goo Cho, Sachin Honguntikar and Hyun Joo Lee

Chapter 18 Chromosome Engineering in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: 
Addition and Elimination of Targeted Chromosomes 327
Masako Tada

Chapter 19 Microarray Analysis of Undifferentiated 
and Differentiated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells 343
Jane Synnergren and Peter Sartipy

Chapter 20 Tracking the Structure of Protein Interaction Network 
via Multiple Genetic Perturbations on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells — Implementation of the Entropy Maximization Principle 367
Lei Mao, Rossella De Cegli, Mario Lauria, Grit Nebrich, Jean Maurice Delabar, Yann Herault, Gilda Cobellis and Joachim Klose

Part 5 of the textbook :  Methods for the Generation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines for Production of Transgenic and Chimeric Rodents 381

Chapter 21 Establishment of Embryonic Stem Cells 
and Generation of Genetically Modified Rats 383
Masaki Kawamata and Takahiro Ochiya

Chapter 22 Rat Embryonic Stem Cells: 
Establishment and Their Use for Transgenesis 397
Masumi Hirabayashi and Shinichi Hochi

Part 6 of the textbook :  Methods of Using Embryonic Stem Cells for Toxicology 411

Chapter 23 Assessment of Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity 
by the Embryonic Stem Cell Test 413
Kazuaki Nakamura, Shinji Kusakawa and Akito Tanoue

Chapter 24 Application of Embryonic Stem Cells 
as a Novel Tool in Drug Screening 429
Gi Jin Kim

Chapter 25 Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal 
Networks:Their Electrical Functionality and Usability for Modelling and Toxicology 459
Riikka Äänismaa, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Jarno E. Mikkonen and Susanna Narkilahti

Chapter 26 A Novel Strategy for Drug Discovery and Development 
by Analyzing the Behavior of ES Cells Cultured on TOSHI (Tissue/Organ Sections for Histopathology)–Substrata 473
Toshiaki Takezawa .

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Published by: Unknown - Sunday, February 3, 2013


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