Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Peter Bright .

590 pages . 
Open Access .

Modern neuroimaging tools allow unprecedented opportunities for understanding brain neuroanatomy and function in health and disease. Each available technique carries with it a particular balance of strengths and limitations, such that converging evidence based on multiple methods provides the most powerful approach for advancing our knowledge in the fields of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. In addition to offering fine-grained in-vivo neuroanatomical specification, neuroimaging methods also provide the opportunity to non-invasively explore brain function. The latter – widely employed in the study of cognition, and instrumental in the emergence of the field of cognitive neuroscience – is being increasingly used for clinical purposes (for example, to enhance pre-surgical lesion mapping, to avoid critical networks serving sensory and cognitive functions, and to improve prognostic evaluation for patients in minimally conscious states). Molecular imaging is providing a window on the biological mechanisms associated with disease progression, but rapid advancement in this area is contingent upon the specificity, sensitivity and delivery of the probes and the speed and resolution of the imaging method. Clinical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a form of optical imaging increasingly employed to estimate location and extent of cerebral activation via the monitoring of blood haemoglobin levels. Its portability provides the possibility of bedside measurement, and its relatively low cost and straightforward application lends itself well to clinical use.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra.
This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical conditions. For example, MRS is particularly important for differentiating between high and low grade gliomas, between Alzheimer’s disease and non-progressive neurological conditions, and in the detection of changes associated with mild cognitive impairment (often a precursor for dementia). Neurological conditions carry different prognoses and require different forms of immediate treatment and longer term clinical management, and MRS (particularly when combined with clinical information and MRI) can provide critically important information for diagnostic and evaluation purposes...

Peter Bright
Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge
United Kingdom


 1 Congenital Malformation of the Brain 1 Shahina Bano, Vikas Chaudhary and Sachchidanand Yadav

 2 Neuroimaging in Inborn Errors of Metabolism 37 Carlos Casimiro, Paula Garcia, Miguel Cordeiro, Isabel Fineza, Teresa Garcia and Luísa Diogo

 3 Acquired Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS in Children 61 R. Govender, Jo M. Wilmshurst and Nicky Wieselthaler

 4 Landau Kleffner Syndrome: Neuroradiology Aspect 97 José Guevara Campos and Lucía González Guevara

 5 Neurocristopathies: Role of Glial Cells, Genetic Basis and Relevance of Brain Imaging for Diagnosis 109 Mª Carmen Carrascosa Romero and Carlos de Cabo de la Vega

 6 Role of Neuroimaging in Brain Radiosurgery 129 Tomoyuki Koga and Nobuhito Saito

 7 The Role of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Diagnosis of Ring Enhancing Lesions 145 Eftychia Kapsalaki, Efstathios D. Gotsis, Ioannis Tsougos and Konstantinos N. Fountas

 8 The Role of Functional MRI in Intracranial Glioma Resection 159 Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki, Dimitrios Verganelakis, Ioannis Z. Kapsalakis, Efstathios D. Gotsis and Kostas N. Fountas

 9 Neuroimaging in Epileptic Disorders 173 José Augusto Bragatti

 10 MRI Abnormalities Induced by Seizures 191 Nuno Canas and Pedro Soares

 11 Central Nervous System Findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Epilepsy 211 Teodoro Durá-Travé, Maria Eugenia Yoldi-Petri, Joaquin Esparza-Estaún, Fidel Gallinas Victoriano, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa and Amaia Sagastibelza-Zabaleta

 12 Robotic Arm and Imaging in Neurosurgical Stereotactic Interventions: Oblique Insular Electrodes Implanted in Patients with Epilepsy 251 Afif Afif

 13 Multimodal MRI of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease 277 Bence Gunda, György Várallyay and Dániel Bereczki

 14 Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease 301 Maria Khan, Imama Naqvi and Ayeesha Kamran Kamal

 15 Neuroimaging in Multiple Sclerosis 317 Elisabeth Andreadou

 16 Impact of Gray Matter Pathology on Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis 355 Mike Andrea, Guttmann Charles R.G. and Illes Zsolt

 17 Pseudotumor Cerebri (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension) an Update 373 Eldar Rosenfeld and Anat Kesler

 18 Dopamine Transporter Imaging for Distinguishing Between Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease and Secondary Parkinsonism 401 Chin-Chang Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen and Chin-Song Lu

 19 Neuroimaging in FragileX-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) 423 Laia Rodriguez-Revenga, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Esther Granell Moreno, Javier Pagonabarraga and Montserrat Mila

 20 Non-Conventional MRI Techniques in Neurophychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE): Emerging Tools to Elucidate the Pathophysiology and Aid the Diagnosis and Management 441 Efrosini Z. Papadaki and Dimitrios T. Boumpas

 21 Central Nervous System Tuberculosis 467 Shahina Bano, Vikas Chaudhary and Sachchidanand Yadav

 22 Imaging of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs) 499 Zhaoda Zhang and Anna-Liisa Brownell

 23 Molecular Imaging of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In Vivo: Current Status and Perspectives 533 Peter Brust and Winnie Deuther-Conrad

 24 Advances in MR Imaging of Leukodystrophies 559 Eva-Maria Ratai, Paul Caruso and Florian Eichler ;

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Published by: Unknown - Tuesday, February 19, 2013


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