Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Jing Zheng .
438 pages . 

Since its first description in detail by the Italian surgeon Hieronymus Fabricius in 1604 in 
the publication of De formato foetu (On the Formation of the Fetus), the human placenta has 
been recognized as a protecting organ for the fetus and a site of exchange of respiratory 
gases, nutrients and wastes between the fetal and maternal systems. In addition, the 
placenta also has important metabolic and endocrine functions, which are required for 
maintaining pregnancy and supporting normal fetal growth and development. It has 
become clear that any impaired placental growth and functions could lead to severe 
pregnancy complications, potentially increasing fetal mortality and morbidity. To date, 
after extensive and systemic research over the last four centuries, our understanding of 
the human placenta and methods used for early diagnosis, efficacious therapy, and 
prognosis for pregnancy complications have been significantly improved.
However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many placental-related 
pregnancy complications remain unclear. 
The objective of this book, containing 19 chapters, is to provide a comprehensive and 
most updated overview of the human placenta, including current advances and future 
directions in the early detection, recognition, and management of placental abnormalities 
as well as our current understanding of placental toxicology, infections, and pathologies.
It also includes a highly controversial topic, therapeutic applications of the human 
placenta. I hope that this book will become useful and attractive to medical students, 
nurse practitioners, practicing clinicians, and biomedical researchers in the fields of 
obstetrics, pediatrics, family practice, genetics, and others.
It has been an extraordinarily learning, stimulating, and rewarding experience to put 
this book together. I wish to express my deep gratitude to all contributors for their 
outstanding work and scholar efforts in preparation of individual chapters. I am also 
indebted to our publishing manager, Ms. Dragana Manestar at Intech, for her diligent 
efforts in collecting and organizing all of the chapters.

Jing Zheng, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,


Part 1 of the textbook : Screening Tests and Application of Placentas .

Chapter 1 Early Pregnancy Screening for Complications 
of Pregnancy: Proteomic Profiling Approaches 3
Murray D. Mitchell and Gregory E. Rice

Chapter 2 Human Placenta as a Biomarker 
of Environmental Toxins Exposure –
Long-Term Morphochemical Monitoring 19
Monika Zadrożna, Barbara Nowak, Maria Żołnierek, Lucyna Zamorska and Józef Niweliński

Chapter 3 Exploring the Human Term Placenta as a Novel Source 
for Stem Cells and Their Application in the Clinic 53
Celena Heazlewood, Matthew Cook, Nina Ilic and Kerry Atkinson

Chapter 4 Aqueous Extract of Human Placenta 
as a Therapeutic Agent 77
Piyali Datta Chakraborty and Debasish Bhattacharyya

Part 2 of the textbook : Placental Toxicology, Infection, and Complicated Pregnancies .

Chapter 5 Placental Toxicology of Pesticides 95
Gladis Magnarelli and Natalia Guiñazú

Chapter 6 Protein Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon 
Receptors in Human Placentas from Mild Preeclamptic and Early Pregnancies 119
Ke-hong Hao, Qian Zhou, Qi-zhi He, Jing Zheng and Kai Wang

Chapter 7 Placental Infection by Trypanosome Cruzi, 
the Causal Agent of Congenital Chagas´ Disease 127
Cintia Diaz-Luján, Maria Fernanda Triquell, Luciana Mezzano and Ricardo E. Fretes
Chapter 8 Mechanism of Congenital Chagas Disease: Effective Infection Depends
on the Interplay Between Trypanosoma cruzi and the Different Tissue Compartments in the Chorionic Villi of the Human Placenta 149
Juan Duaso, Christian Castillo and Ulrike Kemmerling

Chapter 9 Expression of Estrogen Receptors
in Placentas Originating from Premature
Deliveries Induced by Arterial Hypertension 165
Andrzej Plewka, Danuta Plewka and Grażyna Nowaczyk

Part 3 of the textbook : Immunology of Pregnancy .

Chapter 10 Cytokines and the Innate Immune 
Response at the Materno-Fetal Interface 181
Aled H. Bryant and Catherine A. Thornton

Chapter 11 Mechanisms of Maternal Immune 
Tolerance During Pregnancy 211
John E. Schjenken, Jorge M. Tolosa, Jonathan W. Paul, Vicki L. Clifton and Roger Smith

Chapter 12 Placenta-Derived Exosomes 
and Their Role in the Immune Protection of the Fetus 243
Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson and Vladimir Baranov

Part 4 of the textbook : Placental Vasculature .

Chapter 13 The Morphology of Villous Capillary Bed 
in Normal and Diabetic Placenta 263
Marie Jirkovská

Chapter 14 Role of EG-VEGF in Human Placentation: 
Physiological and Pathological Implications 287
P. Hoffmann, S. Brouillet, M. Benharouga, J.J. Feige and N. Alfaidy

Part 5 of the textbook : Transport Across the Placental Barrier .

Chapter 15 Placental Transport of Thyroid Hormone and Iodide 309
Kerry Richard, Huika Li, Kelly A. Landers, Jatin Patel and Robin H. Mortimer

Chapter 16 ABC Transporters in Human Placenta 
and Their Role in Maternal-Fetal Cholesterol Transfer: ABCA1 Candidate Target 335
Jayonta Bhattacharjee, Francesca Ietta, Roberta Romagnoli, Nicoletta Bechi, Isabella Caniggia and Luana Paulesu .

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Published by: Unknown - Friday, February 8, 2013


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