Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Haim Tal . 
360 pages . 

Ever since the dawn of humanity, invention has inspired progress. The 
resourcefulness of mankind has continually led to advances in the implements we use; 
from time to time we have witnessed revolutionary innovations. Bone regeneration 
and tissue engineering therapy may well be counted among these outstanding 
Bone is a specialized connective tissue most prominently characterized by its 
mineralized organic matrix that imparts the physical properties that allow bone tissue 
to resist load, to support functional organs such as teeth, and to protect highly 
sensitive body parts such as the central nervous system. Bone loss and bone damage 
may occur as a result of genetic conditions, infectious diseases, tumours, and trauma.
Additional causes of bone loss or bone damage specific to the oral cavity include 
severe periodontal disease, tooth loss, and post-extraction disuse atrophy of the jaws.
While physical activity may result in formation of functionally oriented bone 
trabeculae , muscular disuse or muscular atrophy, hormonal changes and aging may 
bring about reduction in bone density and lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Pathological bony defects and deficiencies frequently pose therapeutic and 
reconstructive challenges.
Bone regeneration, which is part of the process of bone healing, involves integrative 
activity of native tissues and living cells, and lends itself to the incorporation of 
naturally derived or biocompatible synthetic scaffolds, aimed at replacing missing or 
damaged osseous tissues. There are several modalities of bone regeneration that take 
advantage of the principles of bone biology: these include tissue engineering, guided 
bone regeneration, distraction ontogenesis, and bone grafting.
During the past 30 years since the introduction of dental implants, lack of sufficient 
volume of bone at implant recipient sites has motivated the development of new 
regenerative therapies for promoting de novo formation of bone at such compromised 
sites. These procedures, often referred to as "implant site development", have received 
special attention over the past few years.
Awareness of what may be likened to bone regeneration and tissue engineering is as 
old as human culture. The Book of Genesis provides a detailed description of the 
creation of man, followed by the creation of a woman from one of the man's ribs: [21] 
"So the LORD GOD caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took 
one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh; [22] and the rib which the LORD GOD 
had taken from the man he made into a woman." The ancient Kabbalah refers to these 
divine acts as Genesis I and II, and considers the power given to Noah to select the 
species to repopulate the world after the great flood, when the power of divine 
regeneration was granted to a human being, as Genesis III. Tissue engineering and 
clinical bone regeneration may one day be considered as Genesis IV, an era when a 
new kind of creative power is given to man, with all the profound responsibility and 
commitment that such creation carries with it.
Editing this book has been a work of love. It is the culmination of three decades of 
teaching, research and clinical activity in a rapidly changing scientific and clinical 
environment. I am indebted to my teachers and mentors, Prof. John Lemmer , 
University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg, and Prof. S. Sigmund Stahl, New 
York University, whose academic and professional dedication inspired me throughout 
the years. I hope that the readers will find this book informative, motivating and 

Haim Tal
DMD, MDent., PhD (Rand)
Department of Periodontology and Implantology
Tel Aviv University,


Part 1 of the textbook : Tissue Engineering of Bone .

Chapter 1 Stem Cell Based Bone Tissue Engineering 11
Lauren Vernon, Lee Kaplan and Chun-Yuh Charles Huang

Chapter 2 Autologous Cell Therapies for Bone Tissue Regeneration 33
Nevenka Kregar Velikonja, Hana Krečič Stres, Elvira Maličev, Danica Gantar, Matija Krkovič, Vladimir Senekovič, Matjaž Rode, Miomir Knežević, Gordana Vunjak Novakovic and Mirjam Fröhlich

Chapter 3 Signals Between Cells 
and Matrix Mediate Bone Regeneration 59
Ron Zohar

Chapter 4 Tissue Engineering of Bone: 
Critical Evaluation of Scaffold Selection 83
Itzhak Binderman, Avinoam Yaffe, Yuval Samuni, Hila Bahar, Joseph Choukroun and Philippe Russe

Chapter 5 Tissuue Engineering in Maxillar 
Sinus Lifting: A Comparation of Differents Grafts
and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Evaluation 95
Andrea Ballini, Michele Scivetti, Stefania Cantore, Biagio Rapone, Gianfranco Favia and Felice Roberto Grassi

Part 2 of the textbook : Regenerative Bone Therapy .

Chapter 6 Bioresorbable Collagen 
Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration 111
Haim Tal, Ofer Moses, Avital Kozlovsky and Carlos Nemcovsky

Chapter 7 Augmentation and Preservation 
of the Alveolar Process and Alveolar Ridge of Bone 139
Haim Tal, Zvi Artzi, Roni Kolerman, Ilan Beitlitum and Gal Goshen

Chapter 8 Distraction Osteogenesis 
and Its Challenges in Bone Regeneration 185
Reggie C. Hamdy, Juan S. Rendon and Maryam Tabrizian

Chapter 9 Skull Expansion by Spring-Mediated Bone Regeneration 213
Rodrigo Dornelles, Vera Cardim and Nivaldo Alonso

Chapter 10 The Use of Cancellous Bone-Block Allograft 
for Reconstruction of the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge 239
Gavriel Chaushu and Joseph Nissan

Part 3 of the textbook : Applied Biotechnology and Biomaterials .

Chapter 11 Self-Regenerative Ability of Bone 
and Micro Processing of Bone-Component
Material in Orthopedic Surgery Healing 267
T. Ohtani, T. Nakai, R. Mori and Y. Uchio

Chapter 12 Microstructure and Biocompatibility 
of Hydroxyapatite Porous Ceramics Designed by
a Partial Dissolution-Precipitation Technique with Supersonic Treatment for Bone Regeneration 283
Toshiyuki Akazawa, Masaru Murata, Yasuhiko Tabata and Manabu Ito

Chapter 13 Development and Evaluation of Superporous 
Ceramics Bone Tissue Scaffold Materials with Triple Pore Structure A) Hydroxyapatite, B) Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate 301
Michiko Sakamoto and Toshio Matsumoto

Chapter 14 Histocompatibility of Acellular Matrix Bone 
with Osteoblast and Vascular Endothelial Cells 321
Gang Rui, Xuhong Jin and Shan Lin .

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, February 7, 2013


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