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DEHYDROGENASES

DEHYDROGENASES
Edited by Rosa Angela Canuto .
368 pages . 


The dehydrogenases are NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+-dependent oxidoreductases with different functions in the cells and with different substrates. They are present in human, plant and micro-organism tissues, and are of enormous biochemical interest.
They are associated with both catabolic and anabolic pathways linked to normal functioning and homeostasis. The book does not aim to examine all these enzymes, but to take into consideration only a small number of them.
- Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which interconvert ketones and the corresponding secondary alcohols. As their names imply, they regio- and stereoselectively catalyze the oxidoreduction in different positions of steroidal substrates (3α-, 3β-, 11β-, 17β-, 20α- and 20β-position). The steroid-converting HSDs play central roles in the biosynthesis and inactivation of steroid hormones, but some of them are also involved in the metabolism of diverse non-steroidal compounds. The HSDs are integral parts of systemic (endocrine) and local (intracrine) mechanisms. In target tissues, they convert inactive steroid hormones to their corresponding active forms, and vice-versa, thus modulating the transactivation of steroid hormone receptors or other elements of the non-genomic signal transduction pathways. HSDs thus act as molecular switches. allowing for pre-receptor modulation of steroid hormone action. - Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), which catalyze the conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding acids. Many types of ALDH have been distinguished, according to their physico-chemical characteristics, enzymological properties, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution. They are involved in several cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as the cellular response to oxidative stress. The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily plays an important role in the enzymatic detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. They are also responsible for the formation of molecules, including retinoic acid, betaine, and gamma aminobutyric acid, which are important in cellular processes. The most significant role played by aldehyde dehydrogenases is to detoxiy aldehydes, since these are potentially cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic to healthy cells. Mutations in ALDH genes cause severe diseases (e.g., Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, pyridoxinedependent seizures, type II hyperprolinemia, and cancer). Since the enzyme ALDH has been proven to possess a vital role in somatic cells, researchers have recently focused on its presence and functions in stem cells. It has been demonstrated that ALDH is an important marker for identifying stem cells, especially cancer stem cells.
ALDH Bright (ALDHbr) cells are derived from different tissues expressing high ALDH activity and that have progenitor cell activity. Studies have shown that ALDHbr populations may be useful in several cell therapy applications: thus the ALDHbr population may play an important role in regenerative medicine, and could become a new therapeutic target in cancer studies......

Rosa Angela Canuto
Dept. of Experimental Medicine and Oncology, University of Turin,
Italy

CONTENTS :


Section 1 : Dehydrogenases and Cancer .


 1 Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Cancer and Stem Cells ;
Adil M. Allahverdiyev, Malahat Bagirova, Olga Nehir Oztel, Serkan Yaman, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Rabia Cakir Koc, Sezen Canim Ates, Serhat Elcicek and Serap Yesilkir Baydar

 2 Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Cancer Growth and Homeostasis ;
Ellen Friday, Robert Oliver III, Francesco Turturro and Tomas Welbourne

 3 The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Cancer: 
Implications for the Transformed State and Cancer Chemotherapy ;
Paul M. Bingham and Zuzana Zachar

Section 2 : Dehydrogenases and Some Diseases .


 4 Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 
Deficiency and Malaria: A Method to Detect
Primaquine-Induced Hemolysis in vitro ;
Adil M. Allahverdiyev, Malahat Bagirova, Serhat Elcicek, Rabia Cakir Koc, Sezen Canim Ates, Serap Yesilkir Baydar, Serkan Yaman, Emrah Sefik Abamor and Olga Nehir Oztel

 5 Role and Function of Dehydrogenases in CNS and Blood-Brain Barrier Pathophysiology ;
P. Naik, S. Prasad and L. Cucullo

 6 Hydrohysteroid Dehydrogenases – 
Biological Role and Clinical Importance – Review 115
Nina Atanassova and Yvetta Koeva

 7 Functions of Dehydrogenases in Health and Disease ;
Nwaoguikpe Reginald Nwazue


Section 3 : Dehydrogenases and Physiological Role .


 8 Dehydrogenase Activity in the Soil Environment ;
Agnieszka Wolińska and Zofia Stępniewska

 9 Succinate Dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae – The Unique Enzyme of TCA Cycle – Current Knowledge and New Perspectives ;
Dorota Kregiel

 10 Study of Succinate Dehydrogenase and α-Ketoglutarate 
Dehydrogenase in Mitochondria Inside Glass-Adhered Lymphocytes Under Physiological Conditions –
The Two Dehydrogenases as Counterparts of Adrenaline and Acetylcholine Regulation ;
Marie Kondrashova, Marina Zakharchenko, Andrej Zakharchenko, Natalya Khunderyakova and Eugen Maevsky

 11 Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases – Localization, Function and Regulation in the Testis ;
Małgorzata Kotula-Balak, Anna Hejmej and Barbara Bilińska

 12 Glutamate Dehydrogenases: Enzymology, Physiological 
Role and Biotechnological Relevance ;
Eduardo Santero, Ana B. Hervás, Ines Canosa and Fernando Govantes

 13 Amperometric Glucose Sensors for Whole Blood 
Measurement Based on Dehydrogenase Enzymes ;
Marco Cardosi and Zuifang Liu .


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