Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
Edited by Sureka Chackrewarthy ,
254 pages . 

With the rapidly rising rates of diabetes has come refreshed research efforts to 
understand the biological process impacting glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance 
depends on a complex interaction among insulin secretion from the β-cells, clearance 
of the hormone, and the actions of insulin to accelerate glucose disappearance and 
inhibit endogenous glucose production. The research approaches the topic from
several directions including insights into mechanisms of action, development of 
screening methods and novel therapeutic targets and the effectiveness of lifestyle and 
pharmacologic interventions in improving glucose tolerance. This book summarises 
the recent advances in research relating to glucose tolerance.
The book is divided into four sections and each section subdivided into individual 
chapters contributed by experts in that particular field. The progression from normal 
glucose tolerance to impaired glucose tolerance known as a prediabetic state, and then 
to overt diabetes is reviewed in the first section of this book. Usefulness of the oral 
glucose tolerance test in basic and clinical investigations and the effectiveness of 
interventions to prevent or delay the progression from a prediabetic to a diabetic state 
as demonstrated by findings of clinical trials are included in this section.
The second section reviews the potential mechanisms associated with insulin 
resistance leading to impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge 
of the molecular basis of the signaling pathways mediating the various physiologic 
effects of insulin is steadily advancing. New substrates and signaling molecules have 
been identified and potential mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of type II 
diabetes have been revealed. Each chapter in this section is an updated account of the 
advances in this field of research.
Third section reviews current evidence on the role of dietary constituents on insulin 
resistance and glycaemic control. Type of dietary fat and fatty acid composition in the 
modern diets contributing to the development of obesity and altered insulin action are 
reviewed. Further, research findings which demonstrate the effects of dietary sugars 
on postprandial glucose uptake and insulin secretion are included in this section.
Therapy of type 2 diabetes is also advancing and many new avenues of research have 
developed and established areas have taken new directions. The fourth section of this 
book includes several reviews on selected novel pharmacologic compounds with 
antidiabetic potential from natural sources. Their effectiveness in potentiating insulin 
action and improving glucose tolerance are discussed. In addition a review on 
experimental animal models extensively used in type 2 diabetes research and a 
mechanistic model of insulin dynamics with relevance to identifying new therapies is 
included to allow the reader to gain insights into potential new therapeutic targets.
This book is a team product, combining input from many individuals whose 
contributions are much appreciated. Each chapter is written as a focused review 
accompanied by extensive and updated reference lists providing a resource for further 
in-depth researching of the area of interest. All the contributing authors and coauthors 
are acknowledged for their scholarly approach and willingness to participate 
in this endeavor. Without their contributions this book could not have been 
successfully completed.

Sureka Chackrewarthy, PhD
Department of Biochemistry & Clinical Chemistry
Faculty of Medicine,
University of Kelaniya,
Sri Lanka

CONTENTS :

Section 1 of the textbook :  Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment 1


Chapter 1 The Glucose Tolerance Test as a Laboratory 
Tool with Clinical Implications 3
Paul Ernsberger and Richard J. Koletsky

Chapter 2 Can We Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes? 15
Merita Emini Sadiku

Section 2 of the textbook  Insights into Potential Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance 25
Chapter 3 Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Obesity and Inflammatory Mediators 27Ayfer Colak and Gulden Diniz


Chapter 4 Sex Differences in Obesity-Related Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance 37Haifei Shi and Shiva Priya Dharshan Senthil Kumar


Chapter 5 Age is an Important Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases 67Ketut Suastika, Pande Dwipayana, Made Siswadi Semadi and R.A. Tuty Kuswardhani


Chapter 6 Glucose Tolerance and Elders – Lessons We Have Learned and Challenges for the Future 81Sylwia Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak and Ewa Wysocka


Chapter 7 The Relationship Between Chronic Alcohol Use and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: New Insights into Mechanisms of Appetite-Regulating Peptides 101Soo-Jeong Kim and Dai-Jin Kim

Section 3 of the textbook :  Dietary Constituents and Insulin Resistance 123
Chapter 8 Importance of Dietary Fatty Acid Profile and Experimental Conditions in the Obese Insulin-Resistant Rodent Model of Metabolic Syndrome 125
Annadie Krygsman


Chapter 9 Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity and Uptake of Glucose from Sucrose 149
Kia Halschou Hansen, Klaus Bukhave and Jens Rikardt Andersen .

Section 4 of the textbook : Novel Therapeutic Targets and Pharmacologic Compounds with Antidiabetic Potential 163


Chapter 10 Glucose Tolerance Factor – Insulin Mimetic and Potentiating Agent – A Source for a Novel Anti Diabetic Medication 165
Nitsa Mirsky


Chapter 11 Medicinal Plants and Natural Compounds from the Genus Morus (Moraceae) with Hypoglycemic Activity: A Review 189
Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Grasielly Rocha Souza, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz Araújo, Fabrício Souza Silva, Julianeli Tolentino de Lima, Luciano Augusto de Araújo Ribeiro, Xirley Pereira Nunes, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior and Márcio Roberto Viana dos Santos


Chapter 12 Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of an Ethylacetate Fraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus Leaves 207
Sureka Chackrewarthy and M.I. Thabrew


Chapter 13 Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes Animals Models 223
Yukihito Ishii, Takeshi Ohta and Tomohiko Sasase . 




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