Open Access Medical Books

LIPID METABOLISM

LIPID METABOLISM

Edited by Rodrigo Valenzuela Baez .

472 pages ; 
Open Access .


Fats and oils are a large group of chemical structures different in shape, size and physicochemical characteristics, collectively identified as lipids. Ancestrally, lipids were fundamental components in the early human diet, providing an important and valuable amount of energy (9 kcal / g 37.7 kJ / g) and other components, such as  essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (such as cholesterol and/or phytosterols). The different structural characteristics of lipids give them multiple biochemical, physiological and nutritional functions, being transcendental to our body and allowing, among other functions, the development and growth of highly specialized tissues, such as the brain.
Lipids have been important in the evolution of many species and especially for the human being. At present a significant number of studies have demonstrated the role of lipids in the development, prevention and / or treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. The present book, "Lipid Metabolism", discuss in its various chapters the importance of lipid metabolism in humans and other species.
The first section of the book is dedicated to the structure and general metabolism of lipids, with emphasis on the structural and metabolic differences of each lipid.
Regarding lipid metabolism, the main features from their absorption and digestion are also discussed, highlighting in particular the complexity of lipoprotein metabolism.

At molecular level lipid metabolism is even more complex. Some chapters revise and discuss the close relationship between some lipids and i) the cell membrane structure ii) the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, iii) the direct interaction with gene transcription factors iv) the regulation of gene expression, and v) the effect of lipid peroxidation in cellular metabolism. All these interactions involving lipid metabolic products show the relevance of these molecules in the maintenance of normal structural, organic and systemic cellular activity.
Currently, a central element in the study of lipid metabolism is the participation of these molecules in the development and the prevention of certain diseases, especially those of chronic non communicable nature such as, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It is well known the association of some saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (C16: 0) or of cholesterol, with the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, or the effect of the imbalance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the course of inflammatory process and its posterior resolution.
An interesting aspect of lipid metabolism refers to its importance in plants where, such as in animals, lipids represent more than an energy reservoir, highlighting as regulatory elements in the metabolism and in the functional properties of many vegetables, and having a direct impact on the health and nutrition of the human and animal population.
Collectively, the book intent to be a systematic and comprehensive review of lipid structure and metabolism. Special emphasis is made to the functional characteristics of some lipids, such as membrane phospholipids. Some chapters discuss the molecular aspects of lipid metabolism, its interaction with oxidative stress, and particularly the close relationship of some lipids with health and disease.

Rodrigo Valenzuela Baez,
 Nutricionist. Msc. PhD.
Assistant Professor
Fats and Oils in Food and Nutrition Research
Nutrition and Dietetics School
Faculty of Medicine
University of Chile
Santiago,
Chile
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CONTENTS :



Section 1: Introduction to Lipid Metabolism .


  1 Overview About Lipid Structure 3 
Rodrigo Valenzuela B. and Alfonso Valenzuela B.

Section 2 : Molecular Aspects of Lipid Metabolism .


  2 Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation – A Lipid Metabolism Dysfunction 23 Claudia Borza, Danina Muntean, Cristina Dehelean, Germaine Săvoiu, Corina Şerban, Georgeta Simu, Mihaiela Andoni, Marius Butur and Simona Drăgan

  3 The Role of Copper as a Modifier of Lipid Metabolism 39 Jason L. Burkhead and Svetlana Lutsenko

  4 The Role of Liver X Receptor in Hepatic de novo Lipogenesis and Cross-Talk with Insulin and Glucose Signaling 61 Line M. Grønning-Wang, Christian Bindesbøll and Hilde I. Nebb

  5 The 18 kDa Translocator Protein and Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E 91 Jasmina Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Leo Veenman, Inbar Roim and Moshe Gavish

  6 Metabolism of Plasma Membrane Lipids in Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria 119 Paul K. Crellin, Chu-Yuan Luo and Yasu S. Morita

  7 Autophagy Regulates Lipid Droplet Formation and Adipogenesis 149 Yasuo Uchiyama and Eiki Kominami

Chapter 8 Metabolism of Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Faeces of Mice After a Supplementation of Diets with Agave Fructans 163 Alicia Huazano-García and Mercedes G. López

Section 3 :  Lipid Metabolism in Health and Disease .


  9 Lipid Metabolism, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cancer 185 Fang Hu, Yingtong Zhang and Yuanda Song


  10 Impacts of Nutrition and Environmental Stressors on Lipid Metabolism 211 Heather M. White, Brian T. Richert and Mickey A. Latour


  11 Polydextrose in Lipid Metabolism 233 Heli Putaala


  12 Spent Brewer’s Yeast and Beta-Glucans Isolated from Them as Diet Components Modifying Blood Lipid Metabolism Disturbed by an Atherogenic Diet 261 Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak


  13 Lipid Involvement in Viral Infections: Present and Future Perspectives for the Design of Antiviral Strategies 291 Miguel A. Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Flavia Caridi, Juan Carlos Saiz and Francisco Sobrino


  14 The Role of Altered Lipid Metabolism in Septic Myocardial Dysfunction 323 Luca Siracusano and Viviana Girasole


  15 Lipids as Markers of Induced Resistance in Wheat: A Biochemical and Molecular Approach 363 Christine Tayeh, Béatrice Randoux, Frédéric Laruelle, Natacha Bourdon, Delphine Renard-Merlier and Philippe Reignault


Section 4 : Lipid Metabolism in Plants .



  16 Jasmonate Biosynthesis, Perception and Function in Plant Development and Stress Responses 393 Yuanxin Yan, Eli Borrego and Michael V. Kolomiets


  17 The Effect of Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism 443 Yong Zhang and Heping Zhang .




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