Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Raghvendra K. Dubey .
442 pages .
Open Access .

Sex hormones not only regulate reproductive function, but they also play a prominent role in the biology and physiology of several organs/tissues, as well as in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that sex hormones influence different organs and diseases, thereby highlighting the need to assess their roles individually.
During the last two decades, the information on the mechanisms of action of female sex hormones like estradiol have evolved from the conventional nuclear estrogen receptor (ER-alpha) dependent mechanisms to include additional non-nuclear (membrane), non-genomic, and ER-independent (estradiol metabolism driven) mechanisms. This highlights the need to update the current knowledge on sex hormones. Similar to estrogens, the impact of male sex hormones, androgens, and their mechanisms of actions, and association with various disorders, has evolved and needs to be addressed in greater detail. Increasing evidence that exogenous/epigenetic factors can influence sex hormone production and action emphasises the need to understand and update the mechanisms involved.
The current book provides an in-depth and systematic overview of the sex hormones (male and female hormones) and their impact in the biology and pathophysiology of various diseases. Bowling and colleagues provide an overview of the effects of sex hormones on vascular function, Gorazd Drevensek reviews the association with cardiovascular disease, and Leone et al. discuss their role in regulating bacterial infections. Testosterone’s impact upon and association with various diseases, and the use of testosterone measurement to diagnose and treat patients is discussed in two chapters on hypogonadism by Andrzej Gomula and Lorna Z. Zaletel, respectively.
Additional discussion on this topic is also found in the chapter on urinary tract symptoms, by Sae Chul Kim, and the chapter on osteoporosis by M. Rabijewski and L. Papierska. A unique perspective on sex differences in developmental programming of adult diseases is provided in the chapter by J.S. Gilbert and C.T. Banek. M. Norlin and K. Wikvall go on to lead the readers through the intricate pathways of sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism. The importance of sex hormones in reproduction is examined in three chapters by S.E. Seeger and U. Kemmerer, by Y.V. Stjernholm, and by I.I. Muderris and Gokalp Oner, respectively. The role of sex hormones in neuromuscular control and physical training is discussed by E.L. Cadore, L.F.M. Kruel, and Rose Fouladi. Continuing, Stefan Van Dongen and S. Ellen research sex  hormones' role in masculinity and sex behavior, and Uner Tan discusses the association of sex hormones with perceptual-verbal and spatial abilities. The impact and importance of sex hormones in sex differentiation is provided in the chapter by I. Negri and M. Pellecchia, and the role of WW domain containing oxidoreductase in regulating hormone action and cancer metastasis is overviewed by W.P. Su and colleagues. Because development of therapeutic estrogens is essential for hormone replacement, the pharmacological aspects of drug development are also reviewed in great detail by C. Wiranidchapong.
The overall aim of this book is to introduce readers to the ever-growing importance of sex hormones in regulating human biology and physiology. The book also discusses the association of sex hormones in various clinical pathologies, as well as their  therapeutic importance.

Dr. Raghvendra K. Dubey
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology,
Clinic for Endocrinology,
University of Zurich Hospital, Zurich,


 1 Sex Hormones and Vascular Function 1 Meaghan Bowling, Suzanne Oparil, Fadi Hage, 
Robert Hilgers and Dongqi Xing

 2 The Role of Sex Hormones in the Cardiovascular System 31 Gorazd Drevenšek

 3 Serum Free Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Perceptual-Verbal and Spatial Abilities; Differences in Sex and Hand Preference 65 Üner Tan

 4 Sex Hormones and Infertility 81 Iptisam Ipek Muderris and Gokalp Oner

 5 Progesterone in Human Pregnancy and Parturition 99 Ylva Vladic Stjernholm

 6 Late - Onset Hypogonadism - New Point of View 115 Andrzej Gomuła

 7 Hypogonadism After Childhood Cancer Treatment 161 Lorna Zadravec Zaletel, Ljupčo Todorovski and Berta Jereb

 8 Osteoporosis in Men - A Crucial Role of Sex Hormones 197 Michał Rabijewski and Lucyna Papierska

 9 Testosterone Deficiency Linked to Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 215 Sae Chul Kim

 10 Sex Hormones and Bacterial Infections 237 Marc Leone, Julien Textoris, Christian Capo and Jean-Louis Mege

 11 The Special Implication of Sex Hormones on Dendritic Cells During Pregnancy 255 Sabine E. Segerer and Ulrike Kämmerer

 12 Sex Hormones and Neuromuscular Control System 263 Rose Fouladi

 13 Acute and Chronic Testosterone Responses to Physical Exercise and Training 277 Eduardo Lusa Cadore and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

 14 Hand Grip Strength in Relation to Morphological Measures of Masculinity, Fluctuating Asymmetry and Sexual Behaviour in Males And Females 293 Stefan Van Dongen and Ellen Sprengers

 15 Sex Differences in the Developmental Programming of Adult Disease 307 Jeffrey S. Gilbert and Christopher T. Banek

 16 WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase is a Potential Receptor for Sex Steroid Hormones 333 Won-Pei Su, Shu-Hui Chen, Szu-Jung Chen, Pei-Yi Chou, Chun-Cheng Huang and Nan-Shan Chang

 17 Sex Steroids in Insects and the Role of the Endosymbiont Wolbachia: A New Perspective 353 Ilaria Negri and Marco Pellecchia

 18 Tissue-Specific Regulation of Sex Hormone Biosynthesis and Metabolism: Novel Aspects on Hormonal Signalling and Maintenance of Cellular Steroid Levels 375 Maria Norlin and Kjell Wikvall

 19 Solid State and Thermal Behavior of 17-Estradiol in Ammonioethyl Methacrylate Ester Copolymer 403 Chutima Wiranidchapong .

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