Open Access Medical Books


Edited by Scott M. Kahn .
342 pages .

In “Sex Steroids”, we have compiled a collection of insightful and timely chapters 
meant to provide the reader with expert analyses on our current state of knowledge in 
select areas of sex steroid research. Sex steroids are central players in many 
fundamental biologic processes. In addition to their roles in reproduction, 
development, growth, differentiation, homeostasis, behavior, memory, etc., sex 
steroids are fundamentally involved in many diseases and disorders. Throughout the 
years, great progress have been made in our understanding of sex steroid actions at 
the molecular level. The classical model of sex steroid signaling involves diffusion of 
an androgen, estrogen, or progesterone across the cell membrane, where it binds to its 
cognate steroid receptor. This receptor then translocates to the cell nucleus, where it 
modulates the expression of steroid responsive genes. While many of the pleiotropic 
effects attributed to sex steroids are explained by this classical model, we know that 
their mechanisms of action are far more complex and intricate.
Aberrant sex steroid signaling programs are responsible for many aspects of altered 
sexual characteristics and development. Furthermore, the pioneering work of 
visionaries, such as George Beatson and Charles Huggins on hormone ablation as 
treatment for breast and prostate cancer, respectively, highlights the importance of sex 
steroids in the development and progression of these diseases. Sex steroids are 
implicated in cardiovascular disease, CNS diseases, memory loss, and a host of other 
afflictions. In this age of advancements in “–omics”, platforms, computational and 
systems biology, and many other rapidly emerging areas, we should continue to 
anticipate tremendous advances in our understanding of sex steroid actions, their 
biologic properties, and their influence on disease prevention and progression.
The initial section of “Sex Steroids” entitled, “The Biology of Sex Steroids”, features 
chapters on the evolutionary and functional overview of sex steroids, sex hormonebinding 
globulin and its effects on androgen responsiveness, estrogens and growth 
hormone action in the liver, hormonal feedback, and reproductive aging. Additional 
chapters include sex steroid receptors in teleocytes, and the influence of sex steroids 
on stress responsiveness. This is then followed by “Sex Steroids, Memory, and the 
Brain”, which offers chapters on estrogen and brain protection, and estrogen 
influences on cognition and memory. The third section, “Sex Steroids and the Immune 
Response”, includes chapters describing the fish immune response, the reciprocal 
nature of the reproductive and immune systems during ontogeny, modulation of the 
immune response by menopause and hormone therapy, and the role of sex steroids in 
the host-parasite interaction. The final section, entitled, “Therapy”, presents chapters 
on the effect of postmenopausal therapy on adipose tissue, gonadotropin-suppressive 
therapy, and hormonal therapy for the treatment of malignant salivary gland tumors.
It is my hope, as editor of “Sex Steroids”, that this book provides insights into the 
fascinating complexity of sex steroid biology that are of interest to seasoned 
researchers in this field. In addition, I hope it will stimulate newer investigators who 
are intrigued by the many exciting areas of sex steroid research that remains to be 
explored. I offer my sincerest appreciation to the many authors and scientists who 
devoted themselves to the work presented in this book.
I would like to close on a personal note. Earlier this year, the field of sex steroid 
research lost one of its most devoted and highly respected colleagues. Dr. Jonathan J. 
Li was a beloved mentor, and also a generous and dear friend who dedicated his 
professional life to understanding the role that estrogens play in breast cancer. For 
those of us who were fortunate to spend long hours with Dr. Li on the history of sex 
steroid research, discussing his views on the interplay between steroids and cancer, he 
will be greatly missed. Dr. Li, together with his wonderfully bright and talented wife, 
Sara, have impacted many areas of hormonal research, most recently on estrogen as an 
initiator of breast cancer. As one who greatly valued discourse in science and the field 
of sex hormones and cancer, Jonathan co-founded the International Symposium on 
Hormonal Oncogenesis (ISHO). As one of the more successful and highly acclaimed 
academic research symposia, the ISHO series has brought together renowned leaders 
from all over the world, as well as junior researchers in a warm and collegial manner.
It is with this spirit of Jonathan’s that I hope this book serves the complex and 
captivating field of sex steroids.

Scott M. Kahn
Director of Basic Urologic Research St. Luke's-Roosevelt Health
Science Center Adjunct Associate Research Scientist Department of Urology Member,
Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Columbia University Chairman,
Biomarkers Council, International Cancer Advocacy Network (ICAN), New York,


Part 1 of the textbook : Biology of Sex Steroids 1

Chapter 1 Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex Steroids 
in the Vertebrates 3
Nigel C. Noriega

Chapter 2 Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin 
as a Modulator of the Prostate “Androgenome” 35
Scott M. Kahn, Nicholas A. Romas and William Rosner

Chapter 3 Estrogens in the Control 
of Growth Hormone Actions in Liver 47
Leandro Fernández-Pérez and Amilcar Flores-Morales

Chapter 4 Somatostatin in the Periventricular Nucleus of 
the Female Rat: Age Specific Effects of Estrogen and Onset of Reproductive Aging 71
Eline M. Van der Beek, Harmke H. Van Vugt, Annelieke N. Schepens-Franke and Bert J.M. Van de Heijning

Chapter 5 Telocytes in Human Fallopian Tube and Uterus 
Express Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors 91
Sanda M. Cretoiu, Dragos Cretoiu, Anca Simionescu and Laurentiu M. Popescu

Chapter 6 Sex Differences and the Role of Sex Steroids in Sympatho- 
Adrenal Medullary System and Hypothalamo-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Responses to Stress 115
Anne I. Turner, Charlotte L. Keating and Alan J. Tilbrook

Part 2 of the textbook : Sex Steroids, Memory and the Brain 137

Chapter 7 Estrogen and Brain Protection 139
Xiaohua Ju, Daniel Metzger and Marianna Jung

Chapter 8 Estrogen Influences on Cognition 163
Antonella Gasbarri and Carlos Tomaz

Chapter 9 An Integrative Review of Estradiol Effects on 
Dendritic Spines and Memory over the Lifespan 183
Victoria Luine and Maya Frankfurt

Part 3 of the textbook : Sex Steroids and the Immune Response 197

Chapter 10 Sex Steroids Modulate Fish Immune Response 199
Elena Chaves-Pozo, Isabel Cabas and Alfonsa García-Ayala

Chapter 11 Interactions Between Reproductive and Immune 
Systems During Ontogeny: Roles of GnRH, Sex Steroids, and Immunomediators 221
Liudmila A. Zakharova and Marina S. Izvolskaia

Chapter 12 Modulation of Immune Senescence by 
Menopause and Hormone Therapy 247
Flora Engelmann, Mark Asquith and Ilhem Messaoudi

Chapter 13 The Role of Sex Steroids 
in the Host-Parasite Interaction 273
Karen Nava-Castro, Romel Hernández-Bello, Saé Muñiz-Hernández and Jorge Morales-Montor

Part 4 of the textbook : Therapy 289

Chapter 14 Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Effect of Postmenopausal 
Hormone Therapy on Change of Body Composition 291
Kyong Wook Yi and Seung Yup Ku

Chapter 15 Standard Gonadotropin-Suppressive Therapy 
in Japanese Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious or Early Puberty Does Not Adversely Affect Body Composition 305
Toshihide Kubo

Chapter 16 Hormone Therapy for the Treatment of Patients 
with Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor (MSGT) 315
Tomoki Sumida and Akiko Ishikawa .

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