Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering
Edited by Daniel Eberli MD. PhD.
534 pages . 

The term Tissue Engineering was initially defined at the National Science Foundation (NSF) 
meeting in 1988 as the “application of the principles and methods of engineering and life 
sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in normal 
and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes for the 
repair or regeneration and to restore, maintain or improve tissue or organ function” (Shalak 
and Fox, 1988). Researchers at that time recognized the potential of Tissue Engineering to 
facilitate the first medical therapy where engineered tissues become fully integrated within 
the patient, thus offering a permanent cure for many diseases.
Over the following years Tissue Engineering progressed rapidly and first biological 
substitutes were developed for several tissues in the body. Today, Tissue Engineering is 
one of the major approaches of Regenerative Medicine and a growing and exciting field of 
research. In combination with better understanding of structure, biology, physiology and cell 
culture techniques Tissue Engineering may offer new treatment options for patients in need 
for replacement or repair of a deteriorated organ. The concept of Tissue Engineering has been 
applied clinically for a variety of disorders, for example artificial skin for burn patients, tissue 
engineered trachea, cartilage for knee-replacement procedures, injectable chondrocytes for 
the treatment of vesico-ureteric reflux and urinary incontinence to name a few.
The classical approaches of Tissue Engineering have not changed over the last three decades.
The principle is to dissociate cells from a tissue biopsy, to expand these cells in culture, and 
to seed them onto the scaffold material in vitro in order to form a living tissue construct 
prior to implantation into the recipient’s organism. In the appropriate biochemical and 
biomechanical environment these tissues will unfold their full functional potential and serve 
as native tissue equivalents. Tissue Engineering products may be fully functional at the time 
of treatment, or else have potential to integrate and evolve into the expected functional tissue 
after implantation.
The Tissue Engineering approach has major advantages over traditional organ transplantation 
and circumvents the problem of organ shortage. Tissues that closely match the patient’s needs 
can be reconstructed from readily available biopsies and subsequently be implanted with 
minimal or no immunogenicity. This eventually conquers several limitations encountered in 
tissue transplantation approaches.
This book serves as a good starting point for anyone interested in the application of Tissue 
Engineering. It offers a colorful mix of topics, which explain the obstacles and possible 
solutions for TE applications. The first part covers the use of stem cells and adult stem 
cells and their applications. The following chapters offer an insight into the development 
of a tailored biomaterial for organ replacement and highlight the importance of cellbiomaterial 
interaction. As more and more applications move toward clinical application, 
a reliable preclinical model system to evaluate the developed techniques becomes crucial.
Several animal models and Tissue Engineering approaches for a variety of organ systems are 
presented in the final chapters. In summary, this book offers insights into a wide variety of 
cells, biomaterials, interfaces and applications of the next generation biotechnology, which is 
Tissue Engineering.
Finally, I would like to thank all authors who have contributed to this book and hope that the 
readers will enjoy its reading.

Daniel Eberli MD. PhD.
University Zürich, Switzerland


1. Development of human fetal mesenchymal stem cell mediated 
tissue engineering bone grafts 001
Zhiyong Zhang, Swee-Hin Teoh, Mahesh Choolani and Jerry Chan

2. The Future of Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering in 
Cardiovascular Disease: The New Era of Biological Therapeutics 031
Sepideh Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Ali Nsair, Ramin E. Beygui and Richard J. Shemin

3. Characteristics of antlerogenic stem cells and their potential application 051
Marek Cegielski, Ilona Iżykowska, Wojciech Dziewiszek, Maciej Zatoński, Marek Bochnia and Olga Kalisiak

4. Cell-Protein-Material interaction in tissue engineering 077
Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez and George Altankov

5. Learning From Nature: Emulating Macromolecular Crowding To Drive Extracellular Matrix Enhancement For The Creation Of Connective Tissue in vitro 103
Yanxian Peng and Michael Raghunath

6. Scaffolds for the Engineering of Functional Bladder Tissues 119
Horst Maya M.D., Srinivas Madduri Ph.D., Gobet Rita M.D.,Sulser Tullio M.D., Heike Hall Ph.D. and Daniel Eberli M.D. Ph.D.

7. Biomaterial scaffold fabrication techniques for potential tissue 
engineering applications 141
B. Subia, J. Kundu and S. C. Kundu

8. Electrospun Functional Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 159
Xiaochuan Yang and Hongjun Wang

9. Selective Laser Sintering of Poly(L-Lactide)/Carbonated Hydroxyapatite 
Nanocomposite Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering 179
Wen You Zhou, Min Wang, Wai Lam Cheung and Wing Yuk Ip

10. Perspectives of Chitin and Chitosan Nanofibrous Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering 205
R. Jayakumar, S. V. Nair, T. Furuike and H. Tamura

11. Bioresorbable polymers for tissue engineering 225
Arnaldo Rodrigues Santos Jr.

12. Physical Limitations to Tissue Engineering of Intervertabral Disc Cells 247
Shigeru Kobayashi, Hisatoshi Baba, Kenichi Takeno, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Adam Meir and Jill Urban

13. Enamel Tissue Engineering 281
Masaki J. Honda and Ken-ichiro Hata

14. Design of injectable bone tissue engineering scaffold consists 
of ß-tricalcium phosphate beads and alginate 297
Tomonori Matsuno

15. Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound: A Laboratory and Clinical Promoter 
in Tissue Engineering 307
Tarek H. El-Bialy

16. Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering 323
S. Partap, N. A. Plunkett and F. J. O’Brien

17. High Resolution X-Ray Tomography - 3D Imaging for Tissue Engineering
Applications 337
Zehbe Rolf , Haibel Astrid, Schmidt Franziska, Riesemeier Heinrich, Kirkpatrick C. James, Schubert Helmut and Brochhausen Christoph

18. In vivo and In vitro Models of Psoriasis 359
Jessica Jean and Roxane Pouliot

19. Growth Factors and Signalling Molecules for Cartilage Tissue 
Engineering – from Embryology to innovative release strategies for Guided Tissue Engineering 383
Christoph Brochhausen, Rolf Zehbe, Bernhard Watzer, Sven Halstenberg, Helmut Schubert and C. James Kirkpatrick

20. Scaffold-free cartilage tissue by mechanical stress loading 
for tissue engineering 409
Katsuko S Furukawa, Masato Sato, Toshihiro Nagai Stephanie Ting, Joji Mochida and Takashi Ushida

21. Tissue engineering for meniscus regeneration 429 
Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo, Marco Delcogliano, Giuseppe Peretti, Alessandro Di Martino and Maurilio Marcacci

22. Tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus 
using acellularized scaffolds 437
Gunther H. Sandmann and Thomas Tischer

23. Bio-nanotechnology Approaches to Neural Tissue Engineering 459
Kun Zhou, David Nisbet, George Thouas, Claude Bernard and John Forsythe

24. Evolution in Tissue Engineering for the Lower Urinary Tract 485
Bouhout Sara, Ouellet Gabrielle, Perron Émilie and Bolduc Stéphane

25. Skin Substitutes 509
Barbara Zavan, Vincenzo Vindigni, Roberta Cortivo and Giovanni Abatangelo . 

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Published by: younes younes - Thursday, February 7, 2013

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