Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Gabor B. Racz and Carl E. Noe .

568 pages . 
Open Access . 

Recently, the Institute of Medicine in the United States assembled a panel to look at the issue of pain and its treatment. The comprehensive report has outlined that there is a great deal of suffering, and an excessive amount of money is being spent on many ineffective treatments for treating pain, and the associated costs with the disability that is the consequence of poorly‐treated pain is even more staggering.
Despite this, significant gains have indeed been achieved over the past 20 years in the treatment of pain by interventional pain and other pain specialists. The evidence is accumulating, and the etiologies of painful conditions are also better understood.
Policy makers need to include input from physicians recognized in interventional pain training and experience, as well as other practicing physicians, in order to avoid excluding data from studies regarding one camp of pain practitioners which may be unknown to another camp of practitioners. Interventional pain management should not be isolated from interdisciplinary and pharmacological pain management camps, and the field should evolve to a point where patients are evaluated and treated using the best of all worlds.
The reader must always be careful and maintain personal selectiveness for incorporating those areas that are indeed in the best interest of the patient that suffers from pain. The material contained within this book has been assembled more for quality rather than completeness. One may wish to have other and different areas covered, but there is only so much that can be accomplished in a limited amount of time and space. There is a significant amount covered in the various parts on opioids which must be looked at, as treatment of pain in many parts of the world is heavily opioid dependent.
It is interesting to note that in the United States over the last couple of years, the mortality rate from prescribed opioids has exceeded that for motor vehicle‐induced mortality. When opioids are used, the nature of the medication is such that it is subject to diversion and abuse. Disciplining patients should not be the responsibility of the physician, but verifying the use interestingly helps to maintain the appropriate use.
For example, urine tests two to six times per year, qualitative and quantitative is followed by a one‐third reduction in the inappropriate use of the medication. 
Physicians need to look at whatever is in the best interest of the patient, and clearly the unintended overuse is not.

Dr Noe and myself go back for many years in the arena of interventional pain evaluation, research, teaching, and treatment.The clear recognition is that we could not have fulfilled the rolls that one has to fulfill without the complete devotion to our partners, Laura, Dr Noe’s devoted wife, and Enid, my beautiful wife of 50 years this year. After a very brief discussion between my friend, Dr Carl Noe, and myself, we felt that the most appropriate way for us to express our gratitude is by dedicating this book to them.
We hope that the readers will find information that will make them think and improve their outlook on a fair and balanced vision of pain and its treatment, regardless of which branch of medicine they practice.
The purpose of this project is to bring the best minds together from around the world quickly and on an ongoing basis to make a world with less pain, hence the title Painless. The electronic format will leverage technology to allow for rapid additions of new material and updates of this initial presentation. We look forward to this global conversation with you.

Gabor B. Racz, MD, FIPP, ABIPP
Grover E. Murray Professor
Professor and Chairman Emeritus
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center



Part 1 of the textbook : Pain Science .

 1 Intrathecal Studies on Animal Pain Models 3 Jen-Kun Cheng

 2 Polymer Based Therapies for the Treatment of Chronic Pain 27 Pradeep K. Dhal, Diego A. Gianolio and Robert J. Miller

 3 Molecular Aspects of Opioid Receptors and Opioid Receptor Painkillers 43 Austin B. Yongye and Karina Martínez-Mayorga

4 Creation of New Local Anesthetics Based on Quinoline Derivatives and Related Heterocycles 63 Igor Ukrainets

 5 Neuroprotection and Pain Management 81 Kambiz Hassanzadeh and Esmael Izadpanah

 6 Reduced Antinociceptive Effect of Repeated Treatment with a Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2
Agonist in Cannabinoid-Tolerant Rats Following Spinal Nerve Transection 101 Matthew S. Alkaitis, Christian Ndong, Russell P. Landry III, Joyce A. DeLeo and E. Alfonso Romero-Sandoval

 7 Applied Radiologic Science in the Treatment of Pain: Interventional Pain Medicine 123 Kevin L. Wininger

Part 2 of the textbook : Acute Pain .

 8 Local Anesthetic Agents in Arthroscopy 161 Joseph Baker

 9 Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Management 177 G. Ulufer Sivrikaya

 10 The Effect of General Anesthesia and General Anesthesia Plus Epidural Levobupivacaine or Bupivacaine on Hemodynami Stress Response and Postoperative Pain 211 Semra Calimli, Ahmet Topal, Atilla Erol, Aybars Tavlan and Seref Otelcioglu

 11 Propofol and Postoperative Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 223 Antigona Hasani, Hysni Jashari, Valbon Gashi and Albion Dervishi

 12 Efficacy of Continuous Femoral Nerve Block with Stimulating Catheters Versus Nonstimulating Catheters - A Systematic-Narrative Review 243 Mario Dauri, Ludovica Celidonio, Sarit Nahmias, Eleonora Fabbi, Filadelfo Coniglione and Maria Beatrice Silvi

 13 Regional Anesthesia for the Trauma Patient 261 Stephen D. Lucas, Linda Le-Wendling and F. Kayser Enneking

Part 3 of the textbook : Opioids .

 14 Opioid Analgesics 287 Maree T. Smith and Wei H. Goh

 15 Pain Management and Costs of a Combination of Oxycodone + Naloxone in Low Back Pain Patients 307 R. Rychlik, K. Viehmann, D. Daniel, P. Kiencke and J. Kresimon

 16 The Role of Opioid Analgesics in the Treatment of Pain in Cancer Patients 321 Wojciech Leppert

Part 4 of the textbook : Chronic Pain .

 17 Epidural Lysis of Adhesions and Percutaneous Neuroplasty 337 Gabor B. Racz, Miles R. Day, James E. Heavner, Jeffrey P. Smith, Jared Scott, Carl E. Noe, Laslo Nagy and Hana Ilner

 18 Chronic Pain in People with Physically Disabling Conditions: A Review of the Application of Biopsychosocial Models 371 Kathryn Nicholson Perry

19 The Role of Peripheral Nerve Blocks in the Interdisciplinary Care of Children with Chronic Pain: A Case Series and Review of the Literature 395 Gillian R. Lauder and Nicholas West

 20 Risk Factors in Opioid Treatment of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: A Multidisciplinary Assessment 419 Renata Ferrari, Michela Capraro and Marco Visentin

 21 PsychologicalStrategies in Pain Management: Optimizing Procedures in Clinics 459 FuZhou Wang

Part 5 of the textbook : Cancer Pain .

 22 Radiation Mucositis 469 P. S. Satheesh Kumar

Part 6 of the textbook : Non Pharmacological Treatments .

23 Non-Pharmacological Therapies in Pain Management 485 Yurdanur Demir

 24 Overview of Collateral Meridian Therapy in Pain Management: A Modified Formulated Chinese Acupuncture 503 Chih-Shung Wong, Chun-Chang Yeh and Shan-Chi Ko

Part 7 of the textbook : Nursing and Pain .

 25 When Theoretical Knowledge Is Not Enough: Introduction of an Explanatory Model on Nurse’s Pain Management 519 Katrin Blondal and Sigridur Halldorsdottir

Part 8 of the textbook : Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy .

 26 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 545 Gabor B. Racz and Carl E. Noe

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Published by: Unknown - Sunday, March 24, 2013


  1. Thank you for sharing this post. I found it very informative and helpful. I have been experiencing back pain for a few years now. I injured myself while working for moving company and my back has not been the same since. Some days the pain is just unbearable. My friend recently recommended a pain management doctor in NY. I am very excited to give her a try and see if she can help me.