Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Despina Sanoudou .

304 pages .
Open Access .

Drug development and use have evolved dramatically over the centuries, with an increasingly important role in extending life expectancy and improving quality of life.
The fundamental role of drugs in healthcare is evident, among else, by the recorded consumption: 64% of all patient visits to physicians result in prescriptions; in the year 2000 alone, 2.8 billion prescriptions were filled, equalling 10 prescriptions for every person in the United States.
Despite their contribution, many limitations are still encountered in existing drug usage and new drug development. Among the top ones is the high incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs manifest in a range of forms from common, pharmacologically anticipated side effects or toxicities to therapeutic failures to rare, severe idiosyncratic drug reactions. Strikingly, over 2 million people are hospitalized and another 100,000 die every year, in the United States alone, due to ADRs, rendering them the 5th leading cause of death, ahead of pulmonary disease, diabetes, AIDS, pneumonia, accidents, and automobile deaths. Unpredictable patient fatalities have also resulted in the overall withdrawal of nineteen drugs from the US market since 1998, although these drugs could have been safe and beneficial for specific, yet uncharacterized, patient subgroups. Significant challenges are also noted in drug response, with approximately 30%-70% of patients failing to respond to a drug treatment, although this percentage varies considerably between different drug categories. The limited drug response is encountered either as variability of response to the recommended dose or as complete lack of response to the specific drug. In both cases however, reduced drug response compromises quality of life by prolonging disease duration and treatment, increasing psychological stress and exposure to multiple drugs, while in cases requiring urgent
treatment it can prove lethal.
The high frequency of ADRs and the low drug response rates have a broad range of implications at the level of the individual patients and their family/social circle, as well as the society and global economy as a whole. Of note, the cost of drug-related morbidity and mortality is estimated to be $136 billion annually in the United States alone. Taken together, this evidence demonstrates that drug development processes and clinical drug administration criteria need to be carefully reconsidered and significantly improved in order to better serve the patients and our society as a whole.

The rapidly evolving field of Pharmacogenetics aims at identifying the genetic factors implicated in the inter-individual variation of drug response. These factors could enable patient sub-classification based on their treatment needs thus expediting drug development and promoting personalized, safer and more effective treatments.
Although still at an early stage, Pharmacogenetic findings on a few drugs have already transitioned to clinical practice, while many more drugs are being investigated. This book aims at presenting Pharmacogenetic examples from a broad spectrum of different drugs, for different diseases, which are representative of different stages of evaluation or application. It has been designed so as to serve both the unfamiliar reader through explanations of basic Pharmacogenetic concepts, the clinician with presentation of the latest developments and international guidelines, and the research scientist with examples of Pharmacogenetic applications, discussions on the limitations and an outlook on the new scientific trends in this field.

Despina Sanoudou, PhD FACMG Cibiol
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Medical School
University of Athens



Part 1 of the textbook : Pharmacogenetics – Theory and Practice .

 1 Pharmacogenetics: Matching the Right Foundation at Personalized Medicine in the Right Genomic Era 3 Roxana-Georgiana Tauser

 2 Multiplexed Pharmacogenetic Assays for SNP Genotyping: Tools and Techniques for Individualizing Patient Therapy 35 Susan J. Hsiao and Alex J. Rai

Part 2 of the textbook : Pharmacogenetics in Oncology .

 3 Role of Pharmacogenetics in Gastrointestinal Cancer 57 Suayib Yalcin

 4 Pharmacogenomics of Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase: Clinical Applicability of Genetic Variants 75 Sonja Pavlovic, Branka Zukic and Gordana Nikcevic

5 S-Adenosylmethionine: A Novel Factor in the Individualization of Thiopurine Therapy 95
Irena Mlinaric-Rascan, Miha Milek, Alenka Smid and Natasa Karas Kuzelicki

Part 3 of the textbook : Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Disease .

 6 Current Status of Pharmacogenetics in Antithrombotic Drug Therapy 121 Eva Gak and Rivka Inzelberg

 7 Clinical Implications of Genetic Admixture in Hispanic Puerto Ricans: Impact on the Pharmacogenetics of CYP2C19 and PON1 151 Jorge Duconge, Odalys Escalera, Mohan Korchela and Gualberto Ruaño

Part 4 of the textbook : Emerging Role of Pharmacogenetics ilinn Other Discipes .

 8 Neuropharmacogenetics of Major Depression: Has the Time Come to Take both Sexes into Account? 167 Pothitos M. Pitychoutis, Despina Sanoudou, Christina Dalla and Zeta Papadopoulou-Daifoti

 9 Pharmacogenetics of Asthma 183 Andrzej Mariusz Fal and Marta Rosiek-Biegus

 10 Pharmacogenomics in Gastroenterology 201 Maria Ana Redal, Waldo Horacio Belloso, Paula Scibona, Leonardo Garfi and Santiago Isolabella

 11 The Pharmacogenetics of the Antimalarial Amodiaquine 223 José Pedro Gil

 12 Pharmacogenetics and Obstetric Anesthesia and Analgesia 249 C. Ortner, C. Ciliberto and R. Landau

Part 5 of the textbook : Future Prospects .

 13 Beyond Pharmacogenetics 267 Roberto Canaparo

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Published by: Unknown - Monday, March 25, 2013


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