Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Neil Lagali .

244 pages .
Open Access .

Science often grows exponentially from certain key insights, and the insight Marvin Minsky had in 1955 is no exception. While working as a postdoctoral fellow at HarvardUniversity, Minsky sought a method to reduce the high level of light scatter that made high contrast imaging of thick specimens impossible by standard light microscopy. He realized that an arrangement of lenses having conjugate focal planes (hence the term ‘confocal’), with a specimen and a pinhole placed at these opposite planes, could serve to reject the light that was scattered outof-plane at the specimen. The result was a conceptually simple yet powerful method that not only improved the contrast of an image, but that also enabled adjacent serial optical sections of tissue to be analysed. Although these benefits were readily apparent in early confocal microscope systems employing white light sources, it was the advent of inexpensive diode lasers emitting at various wavelengths that dramatically improved the image contrast, fluorophore targeting, and the axial resolution of the confocal system. Today, laser-scanning confocal microscopy is ubiquitous in biomedical, biological, and non-biological research. Its versatility has ensured its widespread popularity, and the confocal technique has spawned many variants, aiming to improve detection, resolution, and contrast.
Laser-based confocal microscopy has provided the basic platform upon which more exotic laser microscopy techniques have been developed. These techniques improve on some of the limitations of confocal microscopy, by exploiting non-linear effects of laser light to provide advantages such as thinner optical sectioning, non-damaging low-energy excitation, and imaging with intrinsic molecular contrast. While non-linear techniques undoubtedly improve our ability to extract information from specimens and can provide unmatched image quality and information in certain situations, laser confocal microscopy is still the most widely applicable laser microscopy technique in use today. Indeed, this volume is a testament to this broad applicability, describing the use of laser confocal techniques to address diverse questions in medicine, biology, and the non-biological sciences.
In the biomedical field, confocal microscopy is crucial for examining single cells labelled with multiple fluorescent probes, by means of serial confocal examination with multiple excitation wavelengths. This technique is eloquently described in Chapter 1, where the authors detail insights gained into stem cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy. Laser confocal techniques such as thin sectioning, 3D image reconstruction, and spectrally-resolved fluorescent detection are discussed. Chapter 2 describes the application of high resolution sectioning and multi-channel fluorescent detection to elucidate the detailed morphology and structural composition of retinal blood vessels in the mouse – a model commonly used to study eye disease and angiogenesis......

Neil Lagali

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine,
Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University,
Linköping, Sweden


Section 1 Applications in Medicine .

 1 Practical Application of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy for  Cardiac Regenerative Medicine 3  Jun Fujita, Natsuko Hemmi, Shugo Tohyama, Tomohisa Seki,  Yuuichi Tamura and Keiichi Fukuda
2 The Use of Confocal Laser Microscopy to Analyze Mouse Retinal Blood Vessels 19 David Ramos, Marc Navarro, Luísa Mendes-Jorge, Ana Carretero, Mariana López-Luppo, Víctor Nacher, Alfonso Rodríguez-Baeza and Jesús Ruberte

 3 In Vivo Biopsy of the Human Cornea 39 Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa and Kazuhisa Sugiyama

 4 Laser-Scanning in vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Cornea: Imaging and Analysis Methods for Preclinical and Clinical Applications 51 Neil Lagali, Beatrice Bourghardt Peebo, Johan Germundsson, Ulla Edén, Reza Danyali, Marcus Rinaldo and Per Fagerholm

 5 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy: Application in Manufacturing and Research of Corneal Stem Cells 81 Vanessa Barbaro**, Stefano Ferrari**, Mohit Parekh, Diego Ponzin, Cristina Parolin and Enzo Di Iorio

6 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy as a Tool for the Investigation of Skin Drug Delivery Systems and Diagnosis of Skin Disorders 99 Fábia Cristina Rossetti, Lívia Vieira Depieri and Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley

 7 Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Dental Alloys: Evaluation, Diagnosis and Treatment in Japan — Reflectance Confocal Laser Microscopy, an Emerging Method to Evaluate Allergic Contact Dermatitis 141 Emi Nishijima Sakanashi, Katsuko Kikuchi, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Miura Hiroyuki and Kazuhisa Bessho

 8 Confocal Endomicroscopy 157 Anjali Basil and Wahid Wassef

Section 2 Applications in the Biological Sciences .

 9 Three-Dimensional Visualization and Quantification of Structural Fibres for Biomedical Applications 169 Magnus B. Lilledahl, Gary Chinga-Carrasco and Catharina de Lange Davies

 10 Confocal Microscopy as Useful Tool for Studying Fibrin-Cell Interactions 189 Rita Marchi and Héctor Rojas

Section 3 Applications in Food Science .

 11 Applications of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) in Foods 203 Jaime A. Rincón Cardona, Cristián Huck Iriart and María Lidia Herrera

You've just read an article category Biochemistry Genetics and Molecular Biology by title TEXTBOOK : CONFOCAL LASER MICROSCOPY - PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE, BIOLOGY, AND THE FOOD SCIENCES. You can bookmark this page URL Thank you!
Published by: Unknown - Wednesday, March 20, 2013


  1. thanks very much for your large information .and knowledge full description . i think it is sus a topi that many kinds of people face many problem. thanks for this.

    Information visualization Low

  2. Very informative post. Your post really gonna help the people like me who are looking for such terms and info.... I am glad i visited here and learned.

    Laboratory Glassware