Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : Chiral Capillary ElECtrophorEsis in CurrEnt pharmaCEutiCal and BiomEdiCal analysis

Chiral Capillary ElECtrophorEsis

Authored by peter mikuš .

207 pages .
Open Access .

Although the technologies on chiral/enantiomer separation and stereoselective analysis have matured in the past ca. 20 years, the development of new, even more advanced chiral separation materials, mechanisms and methods still belong to the more challenging tasks in separation science and analytical chemistry. An analysis of recent trends indicates that capillary electrophoresis (CE) can show real advantages over chromatographic methods in ultratrace chiral determination of biologically active ionogenic compounds in complex matrices, including mostly biological ones. This is due to the extremely high separation efficiency of CE, as well as numerous new chiral selectors providing a wide range of selectivities for CE. Along with these tools, there are many applicable in-capillary electromigration effects in CE (countercurrent migration, stacking effects, etc.) enhancing significantly separability and, moreover, enabling effective sample preparation (preconcentration, purification, analyte derivatization).
Other possible on-line combinations of CE, such as column coupled CE-CE techniques and implementation of nonelectrophoretic techniques (extraction, membrane filtration, flow injection, etc.) into CE, offer additional approaches for highly effective sample preparation and separation. Chiral CE matured to a highly flexible and compatible technique enabling its hyphenation with powerful detection systems allows for extremely sensitive detection (e.g., laser induced fluorescence) and/or structural characterization of analytes (e.g., mass spectrometry). Within the last decade, more and less conventional analytical on-line approaches have been effectively utilized in this field, and their practical potentialities have been demonstrated in many application examples in the literature.
In the present scientific monograph, three main aspects of chiral analysis of biologically active compounds are highlighted and supported by a theoretical description. 
This comprehensive integrated view on the topic is composed from the sections dealing with (i) progressive enantioseparation approaches and new enantioselective agents, (ii) in-capillary sample preparation (preconcentration, purification, derivatization) and (iii) detection possibilities related to enhanced sensitivity of quantitative determination and/or structural characterization of analysed chiral molecules. The section dealing with the chiral separations is inserted prior to the section dealing with the sample preparation in this book. This is logical, because achieving chiral resolution is a prerequisite in chiral research and the optimization of chiral resolution is a starting point within the development of a new chiral method. Then, a sample preparation and detection can be optimized, method validated, and finally, applied.

Although this book deals with the advanced chiral CE, it should be realized that this methodology could be understood more generally as the advanced CE modified with a selector (chiral as well as achiral) providing a considerably higher application potential.
This generalization is justified realizing the parallels between the chiral and achiral selector-mediated separation systems in terms of (i) the implementations of the selectors and separation mechanisms, (ii) compatibility of sample preparation, separation and detection steps in the presence of the selector, and (iii) the application of the CE method modified with the selector. Therefore, the reader can advantageously use this book as a guide when proposing the strategy for the advanced chiral analysis, as well as achiral one supported by the complexing equilibria.
The author wishes that the readers obtain an integral view on the topic, some new knowledge, a good source of the relevant thematic reviews, as well as original research works on the topic, and hopes the readers gain inspiration for solving their own problems when reading this book.
The author would like to thank the book reviewers, excellent chemists and analysts, Prof. Dr. Ladislav Novotný, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jozef Polonský, Prof. Dr. Emil Havránek and Prof. Dr. Milan Remko, for their valuable advice and suggestions on the manuscript during its preparation and before its final editing and publication.

Peter Mikuš
Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Bratislava,
Slovak Republic



 1 Introduction and Overview 1
 2 Advanced Chiral Separation 5
 3 Advanced Combinations of Detection and Electrophoresis 111
 4 Conclusion 147
 5 Acknowledgements 149
 6 References 151
 7 References 151
 8 Abbreviations 183
 9 Index 187

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