Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : NEW INSIGHTS INTO ANXIETY DISORDERS

ANXIETY DISORDERS

Edited by Federico Durbano .

456 pages .
Open Access .


The contributing authors have done their best to be clear and exhaustive enough about their topics. I will give a brief panorama on the structure of the work, just to introduce the chapters accepted for this publication.
Anxiety and panic disorders have now reached the size of a pandemic: a third of the western world and a substantial part of that global world that is facing to the modern (western) world suffer of pathological anxiety more or less seriously. According to NIMH data, onset of anxiety disorders is the earliest of all mental disorders (11 yrs age), and the 12-months prevalence in USA is 18.1% of adult population (of them, about 23% is graded serious or very serious). Women overtake men by 60%. And in the last decade, the whole world has experienced a series of man-made and natural disasters. Large numbers of people have therefore been exposed directly or (peculiarity of the modern world) via mass-media to potentially traumatic events, increasing dramatically the importance of anxiety in modern world. According to these data, the questions about what is the meaning of the phenomenon and what should be its management is an increasing measure of the inefficiency of the current therapeutic approaches, individually oriented and based on old approaches to an expanding and less and less individual problem.
We must bear in mind, however, that fear and anxiety are normal part of life. You may feel anxious before you take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful and adaptive - it makes you more alert or careful, saving your life in certain circumstances. Normally, it ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. 
But for millions of people, this anxiety does not go away, and gets worse over time, leading to a general malfunctioning of their somatopsychic integrity. The first part of this book therefore describes very well and very deeply the evolutionary meaning of anxiety and the adaptive value of anxious emotions. According to ethology, anxiety is a normal reaction to stress being actually beneficial in some situations. For some people, however, anxiety can become excessive, and while the person suffering may realize it is excessive they may also have difficulty controlling it and it may negatively affect their day-to-day living.
The chapters of the second part of the book are centered on the biological basis of anxiety, specifically on the role of the increasingly understood role of the “black box” cerebellum and of the alert circuits, of the disregulation of neuroendocrine functioning in personality disorders associated with anxiety behaviors, and of the role of inflammatory mediators in anxiety reactions; these are the most recent evidences on the developments of basic research on anxiety disorders, and are all written by clinical psychiatrist, under lining the importance that basic research has gained in recent years for an effective and efficient clinical practice.

After that, a third section explores some emerging clinical problems associated with anxiety disorders. A very interesting one is the description and discrimination of social anxiety and psychosis, very often social anxiety being confused with interpersonal hypersensitivity and some forms of paranoia. But also social anxiety is a dimension of paranoia, and a correct definition of the problem is of main interest for a correct therapeutic intervention. Being social anxiety an increasing problem affecting modern society, and being at the basis of drug abuse consumption and of other dissocial behaviors in order to counteract it, great efforts have spent to understand the concept of social anxiety, and a very important issue of research is about expressing and understanding emotions. The theme is very well developed in the third part of this book, exploring the peculiar modalities with which social anxious people express negative emotions and are unable to understand
their inner positive emotions and beliefs. Another important issue regards the connection between anxiety and physical illness, specially because the main symptomatic expression of anxiety is physical (muscular tension, cardiovascular hyperactivation, vegetative symptoms). A particular aspect of modern psychosomatic research is the etiopathogenetic correlation between anxiety development and expression in some “medical” illnesses: one chapter of this book describes the correlation between inflammatory diseases of connective tissue (joint hypermobility syndrome), another one describes the peculiar manifestations of anxiety in prepartum and puerperium (exploring the most recent data on pharmacological treatment in these delicate periods of women life), and another chapter presents the problems of treating anxiety in personality disorders.
The last part of the book is therapeutically oriented. A lot of efforts have spent to achieve some results in PTSD, facing the increasing exposure to dramatic and terrifying events in modern world (television transmitted wars and natural disaster has a great role in the exploding and expanding manifestations of PTSD, or at least in hypersensibilize people). Here a clinical research group faced the consequences of Japanese tsunami, and tried to found an efficient and efficacious treatment to be administered in a short time to a great number of people in order to counteract the potentially pathological effects of a disaster. Another chapter describes the state of the art of hypnosis, trying to give some explanations about its mechanisms of action and efficacy; another one describes the psychological treatments of OCD, with a clear CBT oriented position, but describing also the limitations of some cognitive-behavioral approaches using evidence based methods. Last but not least, a chapter is centered on the unmet needs of the treatment of anxiety.
As the reader can see, there is a sort of red line which connects the different topics covered by this publication: anxiety as a normal psychological condition, but with potential pathological outcomes especially in the social domain (relational – social anxiety; functional – personality disorders; ambiental – PTSD), not forgetting the ones in physical functioning.
All the authors (all clinicians, I wish to remember) made their best to fulfill the objectives of this collaborative publication, and to all of them a special thanks for their work and for their contribution to an increase of scientific knowledge deeply rooted in clinical practice, which is what everyone of us needs in his daily practice.
A special thanks to InTech, too, which gave the possibility to have this publication and efficaciously supported the authors in the editing process. 
Have a good reading.

Federico Durbano
Nursing School of University of Milan
C. Cattaneo University of Castellanza
Emergency Psychiatric Service of Fatebenefratelli Hospital,
Milan, Italy
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CONTENTS : 

Section 1 of the textbook : General Issues .


 1 An Evolutionary Perspective on Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders 3 John Scott Price

 2 Anxiety: An Adaptive Emotion 21 Ana G. Gutiérrez-García and Carlos M. Contreras


Section 2 of the textbook : Basic Research .


 3 Focusing on the Possible Role of the Cerebellum in Anxiety Disorders 41 Meghan D. Caulfield and Richard J. Servatius

 4 Searching for Biological Markers of Personality: Are There Neuroendocrine Markers of Anxiety? 71 Antonio Armario and Roser Nadal

 5 Alterations in the Immune Response, Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Molecular Indicators and Relation to Clinical Symptoms 105 Anna Boyajyan, Gohar Mkrtchyan, Lilit Hovhannisyan and Diana Avetyan

 6 Understanding the Causes of Reduced Startle Reactivity in Stress-Related Mental Disorders 135 Kevin D. Beck and Jennifer E. Catuzzi


Section 3 of the textbook : Clinical Issues: Old Problems New Ideas .


 7 Social Anxiety Disorder in Psychosis: A Critical Review 173 Maria Michail

 8 Social Anxiety, Beliefs About Expressing Emotions and Experiencing Positive Emotions 189 Jasminka Juretić and Ivanka Živčić-Bećirević

 9 Co-Morbid Anxiety and Physical Disorders: A Possible Common Link with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome 213 Guillem Pailhez and Antonio Bulbena

 10 Anxiety Syndromes and Their Correlates in Children and Adolescents: A Two-Year- Follow-Up Study at Primary Health Care in Mexico City 233 Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga, Alejandra Soriano Rodríguez and Jose Erazo Pérez

 11 Anxiety Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period 259 Roberta Anniverno, Alessandra Bramante, Claudio Mencacci and Federico Durbano

12 Understanding and Treating Anxiety Disorders in Presence of Personality Disorder Diagnosis 287 Véronique Palardy, Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Claude Bélanger and Catherine Fredette


Section 4 of the textbook : Therapies: New Approaches and Insights .


 13 Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorders: Unmet Needs 327 Nesrin Dilbaz and Aslı Enez Darcin

 14 Using Hypnosis in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Pros and Cons 343 Catherine Fredette, Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Sylvain Neron and Veronique Palardy

 15 Current State of the Art in Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 379 Ebru Şalcıoğlu and Metin Başoğlu

 16 PTSD and the Attenuating Effects of Fish Oils: Results of Supplementation After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake 407 Daisuke Nishi, Yuichi Koido, Naoki Nakaya, Toshimasa Sone, Hiroko Noguchi, Kei Hamazaki, Tomohito Hamazaki and Yutaka Matsuoka

17 New Approaches to the Psychological Treatment of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder in Adults 427 Clare Rees and Rebecca Anderson



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