Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Jane Manakil .

380 pages . 
Open Access .

“Periodontal diseases” is a comprehensive web-based resource on different aspects of periodontal conditions: recognition, microbial aetiology, immunopathogenesis, modifying factors, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in the practice of dentistry. The aim of this book is to provide an amalgamated content containing of evidence-based reviews and research on the recent advances in periodontal diseases.
This multifaceted web-resource has utilized the collaboration of numerous specialists and researchers from around the world to integrate the elaborate number of topics within the subject area of periodontal diseases. Although an attempt at a comprehensive coverage of aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical concepts has been
made, due to time and space limitations we were not able to cover the vast array of research studies that is still being done in the field of periodontal diseases. The topics covered are either research studies or reviews on the following topics:
 Aetiology of the periodontal diseasesPathogenesis of periodontal diseases
 Relationship between periodontal diseases and systemic health
 Epidemiology of periodontal diseases
 Anthropology and periodontal diseases with focus on the Jomon people in Japan
 Treatment of periodontal diseases
 Periodontium and aging
The information presented in this publication is intended to reach the contemporary practitioners, as well as educators and students in the field of periodontology. It is fully searchable and designed to enhance the learning experience. The content is produced to challenge the reader and provide clear information. This book provides a unique insight into the various emerging concepts in periodontal diseases from an
international perspective.
Furthermore, there is research-based material on the role of molecular factors such as the cytokines, proteases and protease inhibitors, and the role of epigenetic status in health and disease. Many patients with the same clinical symptoms respond differently to the same therapy, suggesting the inter-individual variability observed as a clinical outcome of the disease is influenced by genetic as well as epigenetic factors.
There is a contemporary insight into the oral innate and adaptive immune responses with elucidation into the development of potential innovative therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease.
Mounting evidence is available indicating periodontitis as a risk factor for various systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, hematologic disorder, immune system disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary diseases and adverse effects in pregnancy. Several
mechanisms have been proposed here to explain how periodontal disease initiated by microorganisms in the dental plaque and host modulation can contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and bidirectional effects in diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis. Risk factors, such as smoking, genetics, stress and increasing age, could independently lead to periodontal disease and to cardiovascular disease.
There is an increase in the amount of research being performed on genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease influenced by exposure to smoking or the effect of smoking on periodontal disease as a bilateral modulating factor. Another chapter in this book presents an epidemiological investigation into the periodontal and oral hygiene status, measured according to socio-demographic and behavioural parameters in different populations, and comparative analysis. This contribution emphasizes the need for dental practitioners as well as dental public health policy makers to work towards equity in oral health and focus not only on dental characteristics but also on the life characteristics of older adults, and on their quality of life issues.
A variety of pharmacological treatment strategies is reviewed here in addition to SRP, involving antimicrobials to chemo mechanics developed to target the host response to LPS-mediated tissue destruction and MMP Inhibitors in the treatment of periodontitis.
In the last decades, laser therapy has been proposed as an alternative or as a complement to conventional non-surgical therapy, due to its capability to obtain tissue ablation and haemostasis, bactericidal effect against periodontal pathogens and detoxification of root surface. Several studies have reported the use of PDT therapy as an addition to nonsurgical treatment for initial and supportive therapy of chronic periodontitis. A deliberation of modern treatment strategies to manage periodontitis has been considered here, which is a challenging field of on-going research.

Dr. Jane Manakil,

School of Dentistry and Oral Health Faculty of Health
Gold Coast campus,
Griffith University,


Part 1 : Aetiology of Periodontal Diseases .

1 The Microbial Aetiology of Periodontal Diseases 3
Charlene W.J. Africa

2 Microbiological Diagnosis for Periodontal Diseases 55
Akihiro Yoshida and Toshihiro Ansai

Part 2 : Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases .

3 Periodontal Disease and Gingival Innate Immunity – 
Who Has the Upper Hand? 69
Whasun Oh Chung and Jonathan Y. An

4 The Impact of Bacteria-Induced Adaptive 
Immune Responses in Periodontal Disease 93
Vincent K. Tsiagbe and Daniel H. Fine

5 Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation 
and Smoking Cessation Intervention 107
T. Hanioka, M. Ojima and M. Nakamura

Part 3 : Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health .

6 The Emerging Concepts on the Impact 
of Periodontitis on Systemic Health 131
S. Anil, S. V. Varma, R.S. Preethanath, P. S. Anand and A. Al Farraj Aldosari

7 Systemic Effects of Periodontal Diseases: 
Focus on Atherosclerosis 165
Emil Kozarov and John Grbic

8 Diabetes Mellitus Impact on 
Periodontal Status in Children and Adolescents 179
Liliana Foia, Vasilica Toma and Petra Surlin

9 One for All™: How to Tackle with 
Diabetes, Obesity and Periodontal Diseases 197
Ayse Basak Cinar

Part 4 : Epidemiological Studies of Periodontal Disease .

10 Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease 213
Amin E. Hatem

11 Periodontal Diseases in Greek 
Senior Citizens-Risk Indicators 231
Eleni Mamai-Homata, Vasileios Margaritis, Argy Polychronopoulou, Constantine Oulis and Vassiliki Topitsoglou

12 Epidemiology: It’s Application in Periodontics 253
Surajit Mistry, Debabrata Kundu and Premananda Bharati

13 Periodontal Diseases in Anthropology 279
Hisashi Fujita

Part 5 : Treatment of Periodontal Disease .

14 Present and Future Non-Surgical Therapeutic 
Strategies for the Management of Periodontal Diseases 297
Renata S. Leite and Keith L. Kirkwood

15 Laser Radiation as an Adjunct 
to Nonsurgical Treatment of Periodontal Disease 317
Juan Antonio García Núñez, Alicia Herrero Sánchez, Ana Isabel García Kass and Clara Gómez Hernández

Part 6 : Periodontium and Aging .

16 Effects of Human Ageing on Periodontal Tissues 343
Eduardo Hebling

17 Aging, Oral Health and Quality of Life 357
Vinicius Cappo Bianco and José Henrique Rubo .

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Published by: Unknown - Wednesday, March 6, 2013


  1. Periodontal disease is a disease that affects periodontal tissues. It affects the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum and the gum line. Periodontal diseases are classified into two categories, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Periodontal Disease St George, Utah