Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Silvano Naretto .

596 pages . 
Open Access .

Is there a need for another Orthodontic textbook? Science is a continuum developing of curiosity and mistakes of trail and errors and concepts.
Knowledge presents different areas of inquiry: origin of knowledge, varieties of knowledge, possibility and limit of knowledge, structure of knowledge and methodology of knowledge.
Methodology: not to be mistaken for technology or technique. It refers to the analysis of conceptual, observational and experimental principles and methods that guide a scientific, biomedical and clinical inquiry.
Clinical observations are interpretations in the light of theories and for this reason they are apt to seem to support those theories, and theories or concepts in orthodontics are conjectural and based on a paradigm, a model. Any refutationcorroboration process in medicine and orthodontics is not a cognitive act but a
decision making procedure.
In dentofacial orthopedics the process of decision making is based on scientific knowledge and empirical clinical evidence.The distinction between the normal and abnormal is an operation of decision rather than a cognitive act. A discontinuity may be detectable during transition phases but is not necessarily the threshold for the abnormal. Orthodontists are interested in forecasting that if the appropriate requirements are fulfilled, the anticipated event will occur. Clinicians must account for the individual variability, uncontrolled or unknown disturbing factors and unexpected secondary effects.
Written words will last forever, pronounced words will be lost. But the original meaning of this sentence was exactly the opposite. In ancient time until the Middle Age words were written to be pronounced aloud by the few that were able to read them for the people not able to do so, so that “verba volant” words would have been divulged.
Because books were read aloud, it was not necessary to separate letters in phonetic units so writing was a long uninterrupted sequence of letters without capitals letters nor punctuation and was the capability of the reader to give the sense and the interpretation of the written text.
Depending on the place and time these letters in long sequence were from left to right, right to left, from up to down or in two columns or alternatively one line from right and one from left or others zig-zag on the page. Also Marcus Tullius Cicero needed plenty of training before giving a good lecture on the written text and with the correct interpretation.
Julius Caesar was the first one who requested the division of the continuous text in pages to be sent as messages to his troops. In the IV century written text started to be divided “per cola et commata” in lines with a finished meaning. But only between the VII and IX century we can define the beginning of the “silent reading” the method that today seems so natural to the private reader, reading in silence, needed a long time to mature in the present way as pages, paragraphs, lines and punctuations. Books! Books
as papyrus scroll rolls were found in Egypt more than 4000 years ago and until Johannes Gutenberg (XV century) was written by hand. And what is next? Would like to report some thoughts:
“Electronic reading has become progressively easier as computer screens have improved and readers have grown accustomed to using them. Still, people read more slowly on screen, by as much as 20–30%. Fifteen or 20 years ago, electronic reading also impaired comprehension compared to paper, but those differences have faded in recent studies.” (Sandra Aamodt is a former editor in chief of Nature Neuroscience) “Initially, any new information medium seems to degrade reading because it disturbs the balance between focal and peripheral attention. This was true as early as the invention of writing, which Plato complained hollowed out focal memory.
Similarly, William Wordsworth’s sister complained that he wasted his mind in the newspapers of the day. It takes time and adaptation before a balance can be restored.” (Alan Liu is chairman and professor of English at the University of California, Santa Barbara)
“The tools (as usual) are neutral. It’s up to us to insist that onscreen reading enhance, not replace, traditional book reading. It’s up to us to remember that the medium is not the message; that the meaning and music of the words is what matters, not the glitzy vehicle they arrive in.” (David Gelernter, a professor of computer science at Yale University)
In conclusion, whatever the future of writing and reading will be, on paper or on screen, the contents and the thoughts of the authors is the real treasure we have to appreciate and keep as a precious gift.
My acknowledgment goes to all the scientists and clinicians giving their personal effort to contribute to the understanding and developing of our profession.
My acknowledgment goes also to my teachers, mentors and authors for their contribution with their concepts to my personal knowledge in the field of orthodontics.

Silvano Naretto MD, DDS, MSc

Department of Int. Dentistry and Technology
Danube University Krems,


Part 1 of the textbook : Technology .

1 Self-Ligating Brackets: An Overview 3 
Maen Zreaqat and Rozita Hassan

2 Considerations in Orthodontic Bracket Adhesion 
to Hypomineralized Enamel 31 Shabtai Sapir

3 External Apical Root Resorption in Patients Treated 
with Passive Self-Ligating System 43 Masaru Yamaguchi and Yasuhiro Tanimoto

Part 2 of the textbook : Technique .

4 Treatment of Class II Deep Overbite 
with Multiloop Edgewise Arch-Wire (MEAW) Therapy 55 Paulo Beltrão

5 Sagittal Skeletal and Occlusal Changes 
of Class II, Division 1 Postadolescent Cases in the Herbst and Activator Therapy 79 Nenad Nedeljkovic

6 Sterilization and Disinfection in Orthodontics 113 
Alev Aksoy, Gulcın Kılıç, Emad Hussein and Darleen Aboukhalil

7 Laser in Orthodontics 129 
Fekrazad Reza, Kalhori A.M. Katayoun, Ahrari Farzaneh and Tadayon Nikoo

8 Modern Etching and Bonding 
Materials in Orthodontics 181 Güvenç Başaran and İlknur Veli

Part 3 of the textbook : Methodology .

9 An Overview of Selected Orthodontic 
Treatment Need Indices 215 Ali Borzabadi-Farahani

10 Orthodontic Retreatment: 
Dental Trauma and Root Resorption 237 Pedro Marcelo Tondelli, Fabiana Akemy Kay, Osmar Aparecido Cuoghi and Marcos Rogério de Mendonça

11 Early Treatments in Orthodontics 251 
Ousehal Lahcen and Lazrak Laila

12 Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis (MLIA) 277 
Teresa Pinho

13 Orthodontics and Caries 309 
Farid Bourzgui, Mourad Sebbar and Mouna Hamza

14 New Strategies for Class II Fixed Functional 
Orthodontics, Including MRI Diagnostics,
Manual Functional Analysis and Physiotherapy 327 Douglas Edward Toll, Nenad Popović and Nicole Drinkuth

15 Treatment and Long Term Follow-Up of a Patient with an Impacted Transmigrant Canine 337 Neslihan Üçüncü, Belma Işık Aslan and H. Tuğçe Oğuz Türel

Part 4 of the textbook : Orthognathic Surgery .

16 Orthodontic Contribution 
to Orthognathic Surgery Cases 355 Nikolaos Topouzelis

17 Long-Term Outcome 
of Orthognathic Surgery 381 Lisen Espeland and Arild Stenvik

18 Orthodontic-Surgical Treatment: Electromyographic and Electrognatographic Evaluation
with Three Electromyographic Instruments 397 Giampietro Farronato, Cinzia Maspero, Lucia Giannini and Guido Galbiati

19 Surgical Orthodontic Treatment 
of Class III Malocclusions 417 Paolo Ronchi and Alberto Guariglia

20 Does Comtemporary Orthodontics 
Comply with Universal Logic? 447 Hicham Khayat

21 The Artificial Intelligence Approach for Diagnosis, 
Treatment and Modelling in Orthodontic 451 Kazem Bahaa, Garma Noor and Yousif Yousif

22 Biomechanics of Tooth-Movement: 
Current Look at Orthodontic Fundamental 493 Joanna Antoszewska and Nazan Küçükkeleş

23 Neural Modulation of Orthodontic Tooth Movement 527 
John K. Neubert, Robert M. Caudle, Calogero Dolce, Edgardo J. Toro, Yvonne Bokrand-Donatelli and L. Shannon Holliday

24 Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Reverse 
Engineering Technology in Orthodontic Diagnosis 545 Bong-Kuen Cha

25 Recent Advances in the Genetics of Orthodontics 569 
Yoko Tomoyasu, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi and Koutaro Maki .

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Published by: Unknown - Wednesday, March 6, 2013


  1. Nice post! Today, orthodontic treatment is simple, convenient, and affordable for patients of all ages. And an attractive smile is just one of the benefits. Orthodontic treatment results in correctly-aligned teeth that provide ideal jaw function and a great smile! Additionally, your teeth are easier to clean and more resistant to gum disease. Perhaps most importantly, orthodontic treatment almost always provides improved self confidence.

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