Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : DNA REPAIR

DNA REPAIR

Edited by Inna Kruman .

648 pages . 
Open Access . 

The stability of the genome is of crucial importance. Every day, mammalian cells accumulate an estimated 100,000 lesions in their DNA as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species, chemical deterioration of their bases, and exposure to exogenous agents such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The cells have evolved complex response mechanisms to recognize and repair such injury in order to maintain genomic integrity. With the development of sophisticated molecular techniques, the spectrum of diseases benefitting from the research effort to understand the mechanisms of DNA damage response has grown to include virtually all fields where genotoxic stress plays a role in disease initiation, evolution, and treatment. One of the most important is cancer biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that DNA damage plays an essential role in neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of cellular responses to DNA injury and how they influence mutagenesis and cell death remain unclear. This book reviews a number of important DNA repairrelated topics.
The book consists of 31 chapters, divided into six parts. Each chapter is written by one or several experts in the corresponding area. The scope of the book ranges from the DNA damage response and DNA repair mechanisms, to evolutionary aspects of DNA repair, providing a snapshot of current understanding of DNA repair processes. A collection of articles presented by active and laboratory-based investigators gives a clear understanding of the recent advances in the field of DNA repair in various cell types, including bacteria (Davydov et al.; Wang and Maier), germ (Leduc et al.), and neurons (Kruman; Coppedè).
The first part is devoted to various aspects of DNA damage response, focusing on BRCA1 (Boutou et al.; Ratanaphan), BRCA2 (Brown), TopBP1 (Forma et al.), Rad51 (Popova et al.; Boutou et al.), DDB2 (Jones et al.; Chao) and E2F1 (Zhang and Chen; Dagnino et al.) factors, the role of cell cycle machinery in DNA damage response of postmitotic cells (Kruman), the involvement of DNA-repair proteins in centrosome maintenance (Mikio), transcriptional regulatory networks controlling DNA repair pathways (Welch et al.) and on the function of microRNA in DNA damage response (Chen and Chen).
The second part of the book deals with an evolutionary view of DNA repair, focusing on meiosis as an evolutionary adaptation for DNA Repair (Bernstein et al.) and evolution of DNA repair in plants (Vuosku et al.).
The third part discusses the mechanisms of DNA repair, particularly non-homologous end-joining (Kamdar and Matsumoto), homologous recombination (Korolev), global genome nucleotide excision repair (Sugasawa) and the gratuitous repair on undamaged DNA formed by unusual DNA structures generating genomic instability (Pan et al.).
The fourth and fifth parts cover roles of DNA repair gene mutations in carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration (Long et al.; Ankathil; Hansen and Vogel; Coppede), and the role of DNA repair machinery in telomere maintenance (Uchiumi et al., Ueno). In the last part, Dr. Azqueta and colleagues review various applications of the comet assay for quantification of DNA repair capacity, including DNA repair analysis at the level
of specific genome regions.
Together, the chapters are a collection of contemporary works on DNA injury and the associated cellular response. While not every topic in the DNA damage response domain could be reviewed in the book, I do believe the authors have done an outstanding job in providing timely and relevant discussions on their respective subjects, allowing the reader to become more familiar with the field. I assume the information contained in this book underscores the significance of DNA repair in the fields of cancer research and neurodegeneration, and the need for continued investigation in this area.
The editor wishis to acknowledge Ms. Alenka Urbancic for her tireless efforts in collecting and organizing all of the manuscripts from our illustrious contributors.

Inna Kruman
Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC)
Texas
USA
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CONTENTS :


Part 1 of the textbook : DNA Damage Response .


1 A Recombination Puzzle Solved: Role for New DNA Repair Systems in Helicobacter pylori Diversity/Persistence 3  Ge Wang and Robert J. Maier

2 RloC: A Translation-Disabling tRNase Implicated in  Phage Exclusion During Recovery from DNA Damage 21  Gabriel Kaufmann, Elena Davidov, Emmanuelle Steinfels-Kohn,  
Ekaterina Krutkina, Daniel Klaiman, Tamar Margalit,  
Michal Chai-Danino and Alexander Kotlyar


3 The Role of DDB2 in Regulating Cell Survival and Apoptosis  Following DNA Damage - A Mini-Review 45  Chuck C.-K. Chao

4 The Potential Roles of DNA-Repair  Proteins in Centrosome Maintenance 57  Mikio Shimada, Akihiro Kato and Junya Kobayashi

5 Shared Regulatory Motifs in  Promoters of Human DNA Repair Genes 67  Lonnie R. Welch, Laura M. Koehly and Laura Elnitski


6 Mitochondrial DNA Damage:  Role of Ogg1 and Aconitase 85  Gang Liu and David W. Kamp

7 Structure-Function Relationship of DNA Repair  Proteins: Lessons from BRCA1 and RAD51 Studies 103  Effrossyni Boutou, Vassiliki Pappa, Horst-Werner Stuerzbecher  
and Constantinos E. Vorgias


8 The Involvement of E2F1 in the Regulation of  XRCC1-Dependent Base Excision DNA Repair 127  Yulin Zhang and Dexi Chen

9 Posttranslational Modifications of Rad51 Protein and  Its Direct Partners: Role and Effect on Homologous  Recombination – Mediated DNA Repair 143  Milena Popova, Sébastien Henry and Fabrice Fleury

10 Post-Transcriptional Regulation of E2F Transcription Factors:  Fine-Tuning DNA Repair, Cell Cycle Progression and  Survival in Development & Disease 161
Lina Dagnino, Randeep Kaur Singh  
and David Judah


11 Eidetic Analysis of the Premature  Chromosome Condensation Process 185  Dorota Rybaczek

12 A DNA Repair Protein BRCA1 as a Potentially Molecular  Target for the Anticancer Platinum Drug Cisplatin 205  Adisorn Ratanaphan

13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model System to Study  the Role of Human DDB2 in Chromatin Repair 231  Kristi L. Jones, Ling Zhang and Feng Gong

14 Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Response  in Postmitotic Neurons 241  Inna I. Kruman

15 TopBP1 in DNA Damage Response 281  Ewa Forma, Magdalena Brys and Wanda M. Krajewska

16 Post-Meiotic DNA Damage  and Response in Male Germ Cells 305  Guylain Boissonneault, Frédéric Leduc, Geneviève Acteau,  Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Olivier Simard, Jessica Leroux, Audrey Carrier-Leclerc and Mélina Arguin

17 BRCA2 Mutations and Consequences for DNA Repair 327  Erika T. Brown

18 Roles of MicroRNA in DNA Damage and Repair 341 
Xinrong Chen and Tao Chen


Part 2 of the textbook : Evolution of DNA Repair .



19 Meiosis as an Evolutionary Adaptation for DNA Repair 357  Harris Bernstein, Carol Bernstein and Richard E. Michod


20 From Seed to Tree: The Functioning  and Evolution of DNA Repair in Plants 383  Jaana Vuosku, Marko Suokas, Johanna Kestilä,  
Tytti Sarjala and Hely Häggman




Part 3 of the textbook : Mechanisms of DNA Repair .


21 The Gratuitous Repair on Undamaged DNA Misfold 401  Xuefeng Pan, Peng Xiao, Hongqun Li, Dongxu Zhao and Fei Duan

22 ATP-Binding Cassette Properties of  Recombination Mediator Protein RecF 431  Sergey Korolev

23 DNA Damage Recognition for Mammalian Global  Genome Nucleotide Excision Repair 453 
Kaoru Sugasawa

24 DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Through Non-Homologous  End-Joining: Recruitment and Assembly of the Players 477  Radhika Pankaj Kamdar and Yoshihisa Matsumoto



Part 4 of the textbook : Polymorphism of DNA Repair Genes .


25 DNA Repair Capacity-Related to Genetic Polymorphisms of  DNA Repair Genes and Aflatoxin B1-Related Hepatocellular  Carcinoma Among Chinese Population 505  
Xi-Dai Long, Jin-Guang Yao, Zhi Zeng, Cen-Han Huang,  
Pinhu Liao, Zan-Song Huang, Yong-Zhi Huang,  
Fu-Zhi Ban, Xiao-Yin Huang, Li-Min Yao,  
Lu-Dan Fan and Guo-Hui Fu


26 Low Penetrance Genetic Variations in DNA  Repair Genes and Cancer Susceptibility 525  Ravindran Ankathil

27 Polymorphisms in Nucleotide Excision Repair Genes and  Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review 539  Rikke Dalgaard Hansen and Ulla Vogel

28 Variants and Polymorphisms of DNA Repair  Genes and Neurodegenerative Diseases 567  Fabio Coppedè



Part 5 of the textbook : Telomeres and DNA Repair .


29 Characterization of 5’-Flanking Regions of Various Human  Telomere Maintenance Factor-Encoding Genes 585  Fumiaki Uchiumi, Takahiro Oyama, Kensuke Ozaki  
and Sei-ichi Tanuma


30 Roles of DNA Repair Proteins in  Telomere Maintenance 597  Masaru Ueno



Part 6 of the textbook : Measuring DNA Repair Capacity .


31 DNA Repair Measured by the Comet Assay 615  Amaya Azqueta, Sergey Shaposhnikov and Andrew R. Collins .




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