Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Felix Friedberg .

412 pages . 
Open Access . 

The book Gene Duplication consists of 21 chapters divided in 3 parts: General Aspects, A Look at Some Gene Families and Examining Bundles of Genes. The importance of the study of Gene Duplication stems from the realization that the dynamic process of duplication is the “sine qua non” underlying the evolution of all living matter. Genes may be altered before or after the duplication process thereby undergoing neofunctionalization, thus creating in time new organisms which populate the Earth.
Osaka (Chapter I) suggests that similarities in amino acid sequences exhibited by paralogous proteins prove that evolution proceeds via in toto gene duplication. If the ancestral and the newly created gene perform the same function, the new gene would be labeled a subfunctional gene. It should be added that such a duplicated gene encoding an identical product might also be engaged by different cellular regulatory signals (e.g. methylation of nucleotide sites) which in turn, could hamper the expression of such a duplicated gene. (See e.g. Woody et al. Chapter 3). If this duplicated gene subsequently undergoes mutations that allow a function for the new gene that is different from the parent gene (neofunctionalization) that would represent a far more positive evolutionary event. The first three chapters in this book focus on such in toto gene duplications whereby in evolutionary time neofunctionalization could have taken hold. There are also several specific cicumscribed examples given in this book. (See e.g. Majee&Kaur, Chapter 12). Undoubtedly, duplication contributes substantially to the formation of new genes. But there is a caveat: In time, the majority of duplicated genes mutates into oblivion.
In recent years, however, attention has been paid to another possible path for creating a new gene: The formation of the chimeric gene, a gene immediately ready for a new function. Such a gene might result from altering the position of spliced introns, or more likely from retropositioning of a new encoding domain into the gene: I.e. partial gene duplications and combination. It is obvious that such processes are particularly suited for the creation of genes encoding multi-domain proteins and that they may accelerate considerably the natural process of neofunctionalization. (See Hatje et al.Chapter 4; Friedberg, Chapter 5; Toll-Riera et al. Chapter 6 and Iwashita et al. Chapter 21). Retrotransposons are capable of promoting such segmental duplications.
”Retroduplication” contributes significantly to the formation of new genes. These genes, in turn may also be duplicated and eventually be erased into oblivion by mutations.

Prof. Felix Friedberg
Howard University Medical School,
Washington DC,


Part 1 of the textbook : General Aspects .

1 A Theoretical Scheme of the Large-Scale Evolution by Generating New Genes from Gene Duplication 3 Jinya Otsuka

2 Duplicated Gene Evolution Following  Whole-Genome Duplication in Teleost Fish 27  Baocheng Guo, Andreas Wagner and Shunping He

3 Detection and Analysis of Functional  Specialization in Duplicated Genes 37  Owen Z. Woody and Brendan J. McConkey

4 Predicting Tandemly Arrayed  Gene Duplicates with WebScipio 59  Klas Hatje and Martin Kollmar

5 The LRR and TM Containing  Multi-Domain Proteins in Arabidopsis 77  Felix Friedberg

6 Partial Gene Duplication  and the Formation of Novel Genes 95  Macarena Toll-Riera, Steve Laurie, Núria Radó-Trilla and M.Mar Albà

Part 2 of the textbook : A Look at Some Gene Families .

7 Immunoglobulin Polygeny:  An Evolutionary Perspective 113  J. E. Butler, Xiu-Zhu Sun and Nancy Wertz

8 Gene Duplication in Insecticide Resistance 141  Si Hyeock Lee and Deok Ho Kwon

9 Gene Duplication and the  Origin of Translation Factors 151  Galina Zhouravleva and Stanislav Bondarev

10 Analysis of Duplicate Gene Families in Microbial  Genomes and Application to the Study of Gene Duplication in M. tuberculosis 173 Venu Vuppu and Nicola Mulder

11 The Evolutionary History of CBF  Transcription Factors: Gene Duplication of  CCAAT – Binding Factors NF-Y in Plants 197   Alexandro Cagliari, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet, Felipe dos Santos Maraschin, Guilherme Loss, Rogério Margis and Marcia Margis-Pinheiro

Part 3 of the textbook : Examining Bundles of Genes .

12 L- Myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase (MIPS) in  Chickpea: Gene Duplication and Functional Divergence 225  Manoj Majee and Harmeet Kaur

13 On the Specialization History of  the ADP-Dependent Sugar Kinase Family 237  Felipe Merino and Victoria Guixé

14 Duplication of Coagulation Factor Genes and  Evolution of Snake Venom Prothrombin Activators 257  Shiyang Kwong and R. Manjunatha Kini

15 A Puroindoline Mutigene Family  Exhibits Sequence Diversity in Wheat  and is Associated with Yield-Related Traits 279  Feng Chen, Fuyan Zhang,  Craig F. Morris and Dangqun Cui

16 Evolution of GPI-Aspartyl Proteinases (Yapsines) of Candida spp 289 Berenice Parra-Ortega, Lourdes Villa-Tanaca  and César Hernández-Rodríguez

17 Clues to Evolution of the SERA Multigene Family in the Genus Plasmodium 315 Nobuko Arisue, Nirianne M. Q. Palacpac, Kazuyuki Tanabe and Toshihiro Horii

18 Molecular Evolution of Juvenile Hormone Signaling 333 Aaron A. Baumann and Thomas G. Wilson

19 Gene Duplication and Subsequent Differentiation of Esterases in Cactophilic Drosophila Species 353 Rogério P. Mateus, Luciana P. B. Machado and Carlos R. Ceron

20 SNCA Gene Multiplication: A Model Mechanism of Parkinson Disease 373 Kenya Nishioka, Owen A. Ross and Nobutaka Hattori

21 Bucentaur (Bcnt) Gene Family: Gene Duplication and Retrotransposon Insertion 383 Shintaro Iwashita and Naoki Osada . 

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Published by: Unknown - Thursday, March 14, 2013


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