Open Access Medical Books

TEXTBOOK : Rehabilitation Engineering

Rehabilitation Engineering

Edited by Tan Yen Kheng .

296 pages . 
Open Access . 

All around the world, the age distribution of the world population is shifting towards older ages, causing an increase in the world population’s mean or median age. The corresponding figures for the world population’s mean age as a whole are 23.9 for 1950, 26.8 for 2000, and 37.8 for 2050 (United Nations, 2004). The growing trend of the world population’s mean age is largely due to the decline in the fraction of the population composed of children (declining fertility) and the rise in the fraction of the population that is elderly (due to longer life expectancy). The impact of population ageing on developed countries with strong economy strongholds, such as United States of America (USA) and Japan, is even more severe. 
To a certain extent, Singapore, serving as a Southeast Asia’s financial and high-tech hub, is also affected as well. According to statistic, in the year 2013, the percentage of elderly people is forecasted to be 25 percent of the total population in Japan.
Population ageing has major consequences and implications in all areas of our daily life as well as other important aspects such as economic growth, savings, investment and consumption, labour markets, pensions, property and care from one generation to another. Additionally, health and related care, family composition and life-style, housing and migration are also affected. Given the rapid increase in the aging of the population and the further increase that is expected in coming years, an important problem that has to be faced is the corresponding increase in chronic illness, disabilities, and loss of functional independence endemic to the elderly (WHO 2008). For this reason, novel methods of rehabilitation and care management are urgently needed.
Rehabilitation means different things in different cases. For home-based rehabilitation, the new trend is to rely on the virtual reality technology because of its inherent ability to simulate real-life tasks. Virtual reality (VR) is a young and growing field. It allows users to interact with virtual objects in a near natural way through different interface devices using their natural senses of vision, audition and taction. The interaction makes users feel immersed in the virtual environment as if they are surrounded in a real world. With the inheriting simulation capability, virtual reality can bring the physical world into the controlled environment. Therefore, the virtual reality based system can implement performance analysis from different aspects, and give the feedbacks to users in real time. Preliminary analyses and useful results can be stored in the computer as references for specialist. The specialist may then adjust training parameters and levels for appropriate self practicing according to the need of individual patients. It is also possible to develop a system for tele rehabilitation to allow services from a remote location, while patients remain in their home settings. The scenario of applications demonstrating the potential for remote diagnosis and treatment through robot-aided telerehabilitation is quite recent. The specialist may provide professional guidance remotely to avoid the drawbacks of self-training in rehabilitation.
Many rehabilitation support systems and robots have been developed for upper limbs, lower limbs as well as visually impaired condition. The advantage using the robots and the systems are that the patients can perform effective rehabilitation trainings and the therapeutic effect can be evaluated quantitatively. Braille alphabet system, created by Louis Braille (1821), for visually impaired or blind people to write and read via touching is one good example of a rehabilitation support system. A Braille character consists of six or eight dots in a rectangular array 3x2 or 4x2. The dot may rise at any position based on a character mapping code.
The character mappings are coded differently depended on languages. No matter what the language is, most of written communication today trends to be in electronic forms, for examples, report, manuscript, email, SMS, blog or website. Refreshable electronic Braille display is designed for display those electronic media in the Braille format. Height of the Braille dot is controlled by a piezoelectric bimorph underneath. Electrical signals stimulate the piezoelectric bimorphs to bend up or down, consequently causing the dots to rise or fall, forming the Braille characters. This allows blind users to read by touching as alternative to listening to the screen reading or text-to-speech software, such as WebAnywhere for English language and PPA Tatip for Thai language.
Another rehabilitation support system for various resistance trainings of upper limb motor function is recorded. This system, equipped with the teaching/guided function for personalized rehabilitation, supports the occupational therapy for recovering physical functions. The teaching/guided function enables the therapists to easily make not only training trajectories but also training programs to suit the individual needs of the patients.
Other than upper limbs, the lower limb research works are also discussed like motorized foot rest for electric powered wheelchair and standing assistance device.
The editor would like to thank all authors for their contribution and all those people who directly or indirectly helped make this work possible, especially Vedran Kordic who was responsible for the coordination of this project.

Tan Yen Kheng


CONTENTS OF THE TEXTBOOK :


1. Virtual Reality in Rehabilitation 001 Xiaoli Yang (Ph.D.), Associate Professor

2. Augmented Reality Musical System for Rehabilitation of Patients with Duchenne 
Muscular Dystrophy 013 
Ana Grasielle Dionísio Corrêa, Adriana Nathalie Klein and Roseli de Deus Lopes

3. Development of a Systems Architecture for Robot-Aided Telerehabilitation 037 
Roberto Colombo

4. Analysis and Design of Piezoelectric Braille Display 049 
Pruittikorn Smithmaitrie

5. Stereo Vision Utilizing Parallel Computing for the Visually Impaired 063 
Pichaya Tandayya, Thanathip Limna and Nikom Suvonvorn

6. Engineering Better Electric-Powered Wheelchairs To Enhance Rehabilitative 
and Assistive Needs of Disabled and Aged Populations 079 
Yen Kheng Tan and Sangit Sasidhar

7. A Rehabilitation Walker with a Standing Assistance Device 109 
Daisuke Chugo and Kunikatsu Takase

8. Lower Extremity Joint Moments during Squat and Stoop Lifting 129 
Seonhong Hwang, Youngeun Kim and Youngho Kim

9. Acetabular loading in rehabilitation 139 
Hana Debevec, Aleš Iglič, Veronika Kralj-Iglič and Matej Daniel

10. The Lognormal Framework in the Context of Human Movement Rehabilitation 157 
Christian O’Reilly and Réjean Plamondon

11. Quantitative Evaluation Methods of Therapeutic Effects of Sanding Training 
in Patients with Hemiplegia 173
oshi
 
Y
fumi Morita and Hiroyuki Ukai

12. Quasi-3 DOF Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs, “PLEMO” 187 
Takehito Kikuchi and Junji Furusho

13. Wearable Robots in Rehabilitation Engineering Tremor Suppression 203 
E. Rocon, J.C. Moreno, J.A. Gallego and J.L. Pons

14. Processing surface electromyographical signals for myoelectric control 223 
Sorin Herle and Sergiu Man

15. A 6-DOF Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs “Robotherapist”and Other 
Rehabilitation Systems with High Safety 245 
Junji Furusho and Ying Jin





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