Open Access Medical Books



Edited by Alan P. Escher and Alice Li .

624 pages . 

The discovery of the hormone insulin by Frederick Banting and colleagues in the early 1920’s is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs and has saved millions of lives over the years. The significance of the discovery is underscored by the fact that type 1 diabetics still have an absolute requirement for daily injections of insulin to live. Clearly, today’s insulin treatments have attained levels of sophistication that have greatly improved clinical outcome compared to early days. Nevertheless, there are still complications associated with current standard of care and there is a pressing need for new means of treating and preventing the disease.
This book consists of a collection of chapters that provide a broad overview of our current knowledge of different aspects of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and the result of the dysfunction and ultimately destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, which is mediated by immune cells of the host that have lost tolerance for the beta cells. We still do not know how the autoimmune process is initiated. A body of evidence points to multiple genetic and environmental factors, and it is likely that different combinations of these factors can cause disease onset. Insulin must be administered once critical beta cell function is lost but the treatment does not faithfully mimic changes in physiological levels of the hormone, which can result in severe complications. Much can and should be done to help individuals coping with the consequences of type 1 diabetes, in particular children who are a main target of the disease. On a higher note, it is anticipated that the clinical complications and loss of quality of life experienced by individuals with type 1 diabetes will be greatly alleviated and possibly eliminated with upcoming therapies that stop pathological autoimmunity and replace beta cells mass using different means. All these important topics are covered in the book, which we hope you will find a valuable source of information.

Alan Escher
SEKRIS Biomedical Inc.,
Redlands, California, USA

Alice Li
Loma Linda University,
Loma Linda, California, USA 


Section 1 of the textbook : Epidemiology and Etiology .

1 The Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 3
Thomas Frese and Hagen Sandholzer

2 Viruses and Type 1 Diabetes: Focus on the Enteroviruses 25
Didier Hober, Famara Sané, Karena Riedweg, Ilham Moumna, Anne Goffard, Laura Choteau, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou and Rachel Desailloud

Section 2 of the textbook : Genetics .

3 Update of Type 1 Diabetes .
Mohamed M. Jahromi and Mariam G. Dashti

4 Genes Involved in Type 1 Diabetes 91
Marina Bakay, Rahul Pandey and Hakon Hakonarson

Section 3 of the textbook : Beta-Cell Function and Dysfunction  .

5 Beta-Cell Function and Failure 115
Soltani Nepton

6 The Impact of Inflammation on Pancreatic β-Cell Metabolism, 
Function and Failure in T1DM and T2DM: Commonalities and Differences 127
Philip Newsholme, Kevin Keane, Paulo I Homem de Bittencourt Jr. and Mauricio Krause

7 Beta Cell Function After Islet Transplantation 167
Morihito Takita, Nigar Seven, Marlon F. Levy and Bashoo Naziruddin

8 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress in the Pathogenesis of Type 
1 Diabetes 195
Jixin Zhong

9 Biochemical Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Type 1 
Diabetes 223
Donovan A. McGrowder, Lennox Anderson-Jackson and Tazhmoye V. Crawford

Section 4 of the textbook : Complications .

10 Diabetic Ketoacidosis 251
Mustafa Cesur and Irmak Sayin

11 Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines 293
Shereen Abdelghaffar

12 Distinctive Characteristics and Specific Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction, Stroke and Renal Failure 313
Aleksandar Jovanovic, Snezana Markovic-Jovanovic, Vladan Peric and Radojica Stolic

13 Diabetic Neuropathy 331
Baqiyyah Conway and Amanda Peltier

14 Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy and Circadian Misalignment 
in Type 1 Diabetes 359
Elena Matteucci and Ottavio Giampietro

15 Antioxidants in Decelerating Diabetic Nephropathy 387
Wen-Chin Lee, Chau-Jong Wang and Huei-Jane Lee

16 The Effect of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus on the Dento-Craniofacial Complex 401
Mona Aly Abbassy, Ippei Watari, Ahmed Samir Bakry and Takashi Ono

Section 5 Patient Care .

17 Type I Diabetes in Children: Facilitating Adherence to Medical 
Regimens 433
Laura Nabors and Jenny Bartz

18 The Influence of Family Support, Parental Coping and School 
Support on Adherence to Type 1 Diabetes’ Self-Care in Adolescents 445
A. Cristina Almeida, M. Graça Pereira and Engrácia Leandro

19 Nutritional Management in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 469
Snežana Marković- Jovanović

Section 6 of the textbook : Therapies in the Pipeline .

20 Immune Intervention in Type I Diabetes Mellitus 493
Johnny Ludvigsson

21 Immunotherapies for Type 1 Diabetes 515
Werner Gurr

22 DNA Immunotherapies for Type 1 Diabetes 533
Alice Li and Alan Escher

23 Antibody-Based and and Cellular Therapies of Type 1 Diabetes 563
Chang-Qing Xia, Yuantao Liu, Qingbo Guan and Michael J Clare- Salzler

24 Cell Replacement Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes 583
Elina Linetsky, Luca Inverardi and Camillo Ricordi .

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